بررسی خوف و رجا از دیدگاه عرفانی امام محمدّ غزّالی و جلال‌الدّین مولوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی


    «خوف و رجا» از احوال عرفانی است که مثل دو بال سالک را هم از خواهش­های نفسانی دور می­کند و هم باعث امید او به وصال می­گردد. غزّالی خوف را نتیجۀ معرفت بنده به عظمت پروردگار و خطرات نفس اماره می­داند. او فقط درجۀ معتدل خوف را قبول دارد و با توجه به نفس و احوال درونی انسان­، خوف را بر رجا ترجیح می­دهد امّا با توجّه به منشأ خوف و رجا و توجّه به صفات لطف و قهر خداوند، رجا را بهتر از خوف می­داند. مولوی ایمان را عبارت از خوف و رجا، امید به رحمت خداوند و ترس از معصیت، می­داند. او با توجّه به احوال انسان­ها خوف و هم رجا را می­پذیرد. او خوف و رجا را جدایی­ناپذیر می­داند و در ترجیح یکی بر دیگری، رجا را بر خوف ترجیح می­دهد. درعین اینکه غیرقابل فهم بودن مسائل عرفانی،انسان را از مطالعۀ علمی آن بازمی‌دارد اما با نگاهی موشکافانه می­توان موانع فهم آثاررا از میان برداشت، از همین روی لزوم پژوهش‌هایی در این حوزه ضرورت می­یابد. روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی _ تحلیلی است که به مقایسة دیدگاه عرفانی امام محمد غزالی و مولوی در موضوع خوف و رجا پرداخته است.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Imam Mohammad Ghazali and Jalal al-Din Molavi’ s mystical view about Fear and Hope

نویسندگان [English]

  • samanehe mansourial-Hashem 1
  • Ramin Moharami 2
  • Khodabakhsh Assadollahi 2
1 PhD student of Persian language and literature University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
2 Associate Professor of Farsi Language and Literature University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Extensive Abstract :
Mysticism is an artistic look to religion, and what is important in it is the issue; moral virtues and the correction of the affairs of the soul; part of this, realized by the fear of God and the hope of his never-ending mercy, is realized; therefore The issue of "Fear and Hope" plays a decisive role in the mystical journey; Suhrawardī pays great attention to "fear and hope", which puts the foundation of the work of the seeker in four pillars (khouf, Raja, bow and shame). Knows and considers " khouf and Raja " as its two important pillars (Suhrawardi, 1364: 640). Abu Naser Siraj considers " khouf and Raja " as a component of ahval(Abu Nasr Seraj, 2009: 27). But Ezzeddin Mahmud Kashani In Mesbah Al-Hedayeh and meftah-al-kefaya are considered " khouf and Raja "as a component of maghamat. (Kashani, 1381: 430-336). Such differences of opinion in the mystical issues are not low; hence, the present research problem is to compare the similarities and differences of Imam Mohammad Ghazali and Jalal al-Din al-Mowlavi's views on the issue of " khouf and Raja ". Answer the following questions like this: From the perspective of these two Islamic thinkers during the course of mysticism, which one is preferring to another? How is the effect of each of these ahval on the type of solicitor's conduct? What causes and causes the appearance and appearance of " khouf and Raja " in the Mystic? And which of these qualities do any of the human beings have? In this study, by comparing the Imam Mohammad Ghazali and Jalal al-Din al-Mowlavi's view of " khouf and Raja ", we are going to make the way for more comprehension of mystical texts more comprehensible by the mystics and their states (which will help them understand their words and ways). Indeed, we have a share in the discovery of the mystery and the sadness of this vast sea.
Research methodology
The research method of the present study is descriptive-analytical, through the library's resources and documentation, in the form of taking notes of topics and collecting data from sources. By revising the notes and categorizing them in various topics and titles, the author will use the structure of his research and write the text by documenting the findings and notes containing the materials related to the authoritative sources and references. It should be noted that our statistical society in this study will be: Masnavi Mowlavi, Fihe ma fih, ehyaye 'oulum al-Din, Kimiyaye Sa'adat, ketabe 'arba'in of Imam Mohammad Ghazali.
"Raja" in the word means hope and hope, and in the term of belonging to the heart, it is desirable to attain and become popular in the future, the The mystics of the dwelling and tranquility of the heart are proud and promising." (Goharin, 1380: 13) But the "khouf" Means fear and fear, and in the sense of the expectation of the appearance of unwantedness or death is popular "(Goharin, 1808: 180). In the definitions given by "khouf and Raja", they are considered to be common and of Muawiqi, which do not come under the will and authority of the servant. The fourth time is "khouf", and "Raja" is considered the fifth most mystical. (Sajjadi, 2006: 37) Ghazali "khouf and Raja" like two wings for the mystic, which makes him maghamat pleasing. With the help of these two wing mystics, he can pass through the barriers and reach the closet. From these two, the Raja's wing causes the lover to enthusiastically walk along the way and endure the difficulty of the way, and the "khouf" wing also makes it impossible for the devotee to take pleasure in lust and not be trapped. "Raja" is like a jerk that brings the seeker to the side and the "khouf" is like a flutter that pushes him forward in this way, and opens up his breath and lust. (Ghazali, 2004 : 385) He still believes that "khouf" is so great for God, and because his servant does not know the outcome of his work and he does not know what his final outcome will be and is unaware of God's initiation, then always "khouf" will accompany him, but that God has placed the "Raja" on the mystic and made them so comfortable, it is from the mercy of God (al-Ghazali, 1384: 294), and But "khouf and "Raja", with all their importance, with mowlavi only the primitive modes for the They provide a spiritual gift; they may bring him closer to the part of human journeys. "(Shimmel, 1370: 436) From Rumi's point of view, there is a huge difference between "khouf and Raja" because "Raja" loves to Beloved and attention to his beauty comes to light, and "khouf" comes from selflessness, fear of God's wrath and observance of the attributes of God's glory.
The mystics call for "khouf and Raja" from the attributes of anger and the grace of God, and the two hal as the two balises, for human flight to perfection, are also necessary and necessary. Ghazali and Rumi believe that humans in the worldly life must have "khouf and Raja" together, but in the preference of one on another, Ghazali emphasizes the "khouf" and mowlavi on "Raja". Ghazali "khouf" is the result of knowledge of God's glory and knowledge of his sin. Therefore, it is valuable when it comes to preventing sin and increasing the good deeds. If Ghazali believes that if God neglects God's pretense over his heart, he is superior to "Raja", but if despair of God's mercy prevails over his heart, "Raja" is better than "khouf"; ultimately, due to the internal and emotional states of human beings "Khouf" superior to "Raja" and according to the origin of "khouf and Raja", "Raja" is better than "khouf" because "Raja belongs to the Sea of ​​Mercy of God but the "khouf" belongs to her anger, so "Raja" is the source of affection, but love to "khouf" does not belong to fear. Take up Against Moulawi, Iman calls "khouf and raja". And according to the level of humanity, both "khouf and Raja" agree, but in favor of one on the other, "Raja" prefers to "khouf", because "Raja" is the lovers of God, and has a lot of velocity towards the beloved, The hardness of the path makes it easier and more enthusiastic, but "khouf" moves and brings the heart out of fear because the servant sees his actions contaminated with the desires of the soul and is always fearful. From Moulawi 's point of view, man must not hesitate to go with "khouf" until God's guidance has led him to do so, but he must not be afraid when love dominates his heart.

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • A Study of Fear and Hope from the Gnostic Viewpoint of Imam Mohammad Ghazali and Jalal al-Din Molavi