موسیقی بهعنوان یک عنصر اصلی در شکلگیری و ساختار شعر، پیوند تنگاتنگی با عاطفه و خیال شاعر و اغراض وی دارد. شاعرِ توانمند با بهرهگیری از دانش زبانی و نیز با گزینش موسیقی متناسب با عاطفۀ خود، ارزش ادبی و میزان تأثیرگذاری شعر خود را افزایش میدهد؛ ازاینرو میتوان گفت لایههای آوایی شعر بهخوبی معنا، تخیّل و عاطفۀ نهفته در شعر را به مخاطب منتقل میکند و باعث انسجام و هماهنگی معنوی در شعر میشود. در این پژوهش که با روش تحلیلی توصیفی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانهای صورت گرفتهاست، پس از نگاهی به زندگی «علی فوده» (1982-1946م) شاعر معاصر فلسطین و بیان دیدگاههای ناقدان ادبی در باب موسیقی شعر و اقسام آن، رابطۀ میان سطوح موسیقایی شعر با عاطفه و اغراض این شاعر در سرودۀ «فلسطینی کحدّ السیف» واکاوی شدهاست. مهمترین دستاورد این پژوهش، تناسب کامل موسیقایی سرودۀ مورد بحث با مضامین و عواطف شاعرانۀ حاکمبر آن است که خود را در سطوح سهگانۀ موسیقی بیرونی، کناری و درونی نشان میدهد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigation The Relation between music and The poet emotion in "Palestine Decreases Al-Sayyaf" from "Ali Fodeh"
Poetry and music have always been accompanied and are of the same origins moving in the same line. About the music of the Arabic poetry, it must be said that the Arabic language is the language of poetry. Technically, this poetry contains special music without following any traditional Al-Arud poetic meter. the verbal music is the result of the appropriate combination of all the verbal elements such as poetic meter, rhyme, Rdif, consonants, vowels, the stress and the pauses. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the meaning and the words of the poem “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf” by “Ali Foude” and the effect of the music on the transfer of the poet,s feelings. What has made the study of this poem necessary is the unfamiliarity of many of the researchers and students of Arabic Language and Literature with “Ali Foude” who are supposed to be more and more familiar with the contemporary Arab poets on the one hand, and the study of the relationship between music and meaning in this poem which is of great importance in transferring the intended meanings of the poet, on the other. Undoubtedly, understanding the hidden relation between the music of this poem and the inner feelings of “Ali Foude” can unravel many of the aims and intentions of the poet and lead to a better conception of the poems. Since the analysis of the poems is not possible without considering the music and the harmony between the music and the text, the internal music, peripheral and the external music of the poem musical structure are analyzed and finally, the following questions are answered:
How are the different musical layers analyzed in the ode “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf”
How is “Ali Foude” poetic power is reflected in his poetic music?
How are the content of this ode related to the internal music?
This study has been conducted in a descriptive-analytic method using the library resources. After studying the biography of “Ali Foude” and his works and introducing different musical layers of his work, the factors which create music in the poem “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf” are specified and the relation between this music-creating elements and the thoughts and viewpoints of the poet is studied. The samples are selected and analyzed after several studies of the poem and based on the dominant thought, according to each music layer.
“Ali Foude” was born in Ghaanir village in 1946 and was martyred in 1982, after many years of homelessness and fight to achieve the aims of Palestine.” (Khalil, 2005: 76-81)
The music of a text is created by the sound and the movements of the letters, their locations, and the arrangement of different parts of a text and the long or short distances between them and is in fact “ a device by which the poet or the writer is able to transfer his hidden feelings in the form of the words” (Kavaz, 1388: 303). In what follows, different types of music are studied and their relations with the feelings of the poet are analyzed.
The external music is “ the tone made of the Arud and the meter of the poem. (Tousi,1369:22). Each poem is compatible with a special poetic meter according to the sentimental state and from among the different meters, the poets select the one which is in accordance with the content and their inner feeling. This ode has been recited in the Bahre Hazaj and because of its fast rhythm is an indication of the inner anxieties of the poem and is the best evidence of his inner excitement and revolt.
The peripheral music is the musical effects created by the repetition of the words at the beginning or the end of any line and at the end of each line in the model poetry and includes Radif and rhyme.
In this ode, 51 of the rhymes end in long vowels and since “ the long vowels in the rhyme are an indication of the deep feelings of the poet, especially of his sorrows” ( Alsadani, 1987:37) this is apparent in the ode and can be an approval to the poet,s efforts to reveal his sorrow and worry and his inner suffering.
The internal music is the result of the appropriate selection of the sounds and the use of the rhythmic sounds (Zaif,1966:97) and the most important elements of this music are rhymed prose (Saaj) and pun. Pun is the similarity between two words in the sounds which are not the same in the meaning. In this ode, Ali Foude has used the puns in order to increase the music of the poem which consequently leads to the increase of the effectiveness of the reader. Saaj is one of the other elements which creates poetic music and leads to the beauty and cohesion of the utterance. In this ode the punned words have been arranged by the sameness of the rhymes and the ending letters and this has led to the internal music as well as the increase of the meaning relations of the words.
Repetition is “ one of the mostly uses of the techniques of the contemporary poets which increases the music of the words and the cohesion of the ode. Ali Foude has started all the lines of the ode by the word “phelestini” and has emphasized on his identity and his deep inner feelings to his home country.
By an overview the music of the ode, it can be claimed that Ali Foude,s technique in using the external music , shows that he has chosen the rhyme of the ode in a way that they are close to his inner feelings and mood, particularly, because this poem has been recited to show his love for his home country and depicts his inner excitement.
The iinternal music of the ode has also an important effect on the accordance and relation of the poem with the content and the poems feelings. Also, it must be pointed out that Ali Foude has made his ode more effective by using different kinds of Radifs because he has not limited himself to the music created by the rhyme, pun and saaj and by the use of the repetitious words, has transferred some contents such as sentimental reinforcement, ennui, surprise, and homelessness, considering the fact that the more a poet has the mastery of the of the words, the more artistic creations he can have. It must be said that Ali Foude,s mastery over the words and his contemplation and subtlety in the structure of the words and the relation between the sounds and the moves have created a beautiful internal and external music which is in accordance with the contents of the poem. To conclude, the relation between the music of the poem and the content, thought and the feelings of the poet is one of the aspects which Ali Foude has considered very well in this poem in a way that the music has been used as a device for expressing the content of resistance, revolutionary excitements, imaginations and sentiments to the readers. In this ode he is not ignorant of the main intention which is the home country but he has followed his commitment to the poetic music and it can be said that the rhythm of this poem is all an outcry and it is the cohesive music which expresses the meaning not just the words.
Ebn Alathir, Zia Aldin, Almasa Alsaer, Alghahere:Dar Nehzat Mesr.
Ebne Jenni, Abolfath Othman, Serre Sanaat Alaarab, Alghaherat: Almatabat Altoufighiyat.
Armaghan, Ali, & Reza Shajari & and Alireza Fouladi, The study of some of the characteristics of Romanticism in the Jafar Ebrahimi,s poems of the children and teenagers, Pazhooheshnameye Adabe Ghenayi Daneshgahe Sistan & Baloochestan, Shomareye 21, pp 31-48, Spring & Summer, 2017.
Anis, Ebrahim, Mousighiye Alshear, Alghahere: Maktabat Alanjoo Mesriyat, 1981.
Badvi, Ahmad Ahmad, Assaso Alnaghdo Aladabi enda Alarab. Alghahere: Nehzato Mesro Altabaat, 1996.
Bashar, Kamal, Elmo Alasvat, Alghahere, Dar Gharib Altabaet o Alnashr o Altozie, 2000.
Pour Namdarian, Taghi, Safar dar Meh, Tehran: Winter Publication. 1995.
Haghshenas, Ali Mohammad, Maghalat Adabi va Zabanshenasi, Tehran: Niloufar Publication, 1991.
Khalil Ebrahim et al, Maraya Tazavagh Aladabi, Beirut: Almoasesato Alarabiyato Le Alnashr, 2005.
Daghyani, Abdolmajid, The rhyme in Belghasem Khammar peom, Majalato Alolumo Alensaniyat, Aladado Alhadi Alashar, pp: 151-163, Jameato Mohammad Kheizar Baskarat, May, 2007.
Alrafaee, Mostafa Sadegh, Eajaro AlQoran va Albalaghato Alnabaviyat, Alghahere: Daro Almenar, 1997.
Zarinkoub, Abdolhossien, Shaere bi Dorough Shaere bi Neghab, Tehran: Elmi, 1993.
Alsadani, Mostafa, Albaniyato Aloslubiyate fi Loghate Alshaer Alarabiya Alhadis, Aleskandariye, 1987.
Zeif, Shoughi, Fi Alnaghde Aladabi, Alghahere: Daro Almaref, 1966.
Tousi, Mohammad ebne Mohammad Nasir Aldin, Meyaro Alashar, Tehran: Nahid Publication, 1990.
Abbas Hasan, Khasaeso Alhoruf va Maaniha, Dameshgh: Manshourat Etehado Alkottabo Alarab, 1998.
Aziz, Vafa, Souto Alzahriyat fi Shaer Alsenoubari, Aljazaer: Jameato Alhaj Alkhezr, 2010.
Alghorfi, Hasan, Harekiyat Aleghae fi Shaer Alrabi Almoaser, Beirut: Dar Efrigha, 2001.
Ghanimi Halal, Mohammad, Alnagho Aladabi Alhadis, Ghahere: Nehzat Mesr, 2001.
Fotuhi, Mahmood, Sabk Shenasi, Tehran: Sokhan Publication, 2013.
Foudah, Ali, Alamaro Alshaeriyat, Beirut: Almoasesato Alarabiyat Lealdarasate va Alnashr, 2003.
Ghaemi, Morteza & Ali Bagher Taheri Nia & Majid Samadi, The musical atmosphere of Amro Algheis,s ode, Majaleye Anjoman Zaban o Adabiyat Arabi, Shomareye 12, pp: 107-134. Tehran, Fall 2009.
Kavaz, Mohammad Karim, Sabk Shenasiye Ejare Balaghiye Qoraan Karim, Tehran: Sokhan publication. 2007.
Vahidiyan Kamyar, Taghi, Badie az Didgahe Zibayishenasi, Tehran: Samt publication. 2006.
Valak & Varan, Nazariyaye Adabi Tehran: Elmi o Farhangi Publication: 1993.
Yousofi, Gholamhossein, Kaghaze zaar- Yaddadshthayi dar Adab o Tarikh, Tehran: Yazdan: 1984.