عنوان مقاله [English]
Extensive Abstract :
Since the poets have tasted the suffering of the prison, they wrote poetries about the prison, and this type of poetry received the name "Habssiyeh". "Habssiyeh or a poet about prison is a kind of lyric poetry that most of its components are about complaints and the preson,s present situation. As Habssiyeh is a kind of poem that is clear and simple, it originates from an overwrought and wounded feeling. The bitter and sad moments and heartfelt scenes of the life of a helpless poet in the deadly silence of the prison, which is presented in the form of words and phrases, and when some sections of prose are depicted in the absence of current known rhythm. But in a simpleand clear manner, the upheaval , anger and grief, allows the speaker to speak clearly. Therefore, the style of the expression of the prison is generally fluent, clear and far from arbitrary and arbitrary "(Zafari, 2009: 23-24). The prison and its related issues are one of the most important basic parts of the prison system. The poets have also talked about it in various aspects: they sometimes said about the cause of imprisonment, and sometimes described the prison as a place, and often they explained their views on prisons. Some poets also described prison constraints, jailer's mistreatment, difficulty and pressure, and the chains, the suffering of torture, the racket of clothes, the lack of broadness (darkness, pollution, bad food, timelessness and being the same of night and day, and year and month, coldness and warmth, etc.) Prison and aging and disability, night blindness and other illnesses, redness of tears, confiscation of property, poverty, conflict and incompatibility of fortune and time, incomplete knowledge and Lord of grace and the most painful of all, the loneliness and disrespect for friends and people, and usually these complaints are accompanied by a description of the same issues (ibid., 19)
Bahar and Safi are two great contemporary poets, and both have received imprisonment for their political thoughts. Concurrence and even coexistence, having a rogue spirit and a critical look at the issues of their country are among the other common subjects of these two poets. Although Safi had lived in Iran for many years, He had many meetings with Bahar, but this article does not seek to examine the impact between the two in poetry, it is only a comparative study of these two poets' issues and the explanation of the issues. It deals with analytical descriptive methods. In the present study, the following questions have been asked to explain: What are the common issues of Bahar and Safi poems about prison? The purpose of the present paper is to provide a true picture of the concept of prison and its related issues in Bahar and Safi poetries, as well as the comparative explanation of their commonalities. comparing Bahar and Safi views about the prison and imprisoned matters, as well as examining the common views of the two poets, as well as the similar social and political situation in Iran and Iraq, show the necessity of this research.
2- Research methodology
This research has been written with a descriptive analytical method that the theoretical foundations of the research are based on comparative literature and the statistical society is poems written by Bahar and Safi Najafi. The methodology is that after reviewing the biographies of both poets, their views on the issues related to the prison are mentioned and analyzed by bringing examples of the poems of both poets.
Comparative literature is one of the most innovative and fascinating literary approaches that has attracted the attention of many scholars today. An international perspective on the literature is the origin of this thinking. "It is easy to find common factors between the two literature, because, along with finding literary intermediaries, the aspects of differentiation and similarity between them are clarified, but the French school did not answer this important question. If between the two literaries , it was found that there is no historical relationship with each other, how should this similarity be assessed, and where is the position of such cases in comparative research? "(Jamal al-Din, 2010: 20). In the American school that is intended in this essay, the criterion of comparison in two works is nationality and culture, not merely language. For this reason, problems can be a good topic for comparative studies. Habsiyyeh is one of the types of poetry that most of its components are complaints and person,s present situation. This kind of poetry is an expression of sadness and endless grief that has been imprisoned in prison. Some of the poets who have been imprisoned have also dedicated a section to their prisons, among the topics of their poetry. This topic is well reflected in the old and new Persian and Arabic literature. Bahar and Safi in the contemporary era are two outstanding examples in this field. The social and political conditions of these two poets necessarily linked them to political issues. That's why both of them were imprisoned by the rulers of time and tasted the suffering of imprisonment. In their poems, they have depicted common themes such as the cause of being stripped down, describing prison clauses, describing prison guards, patience, tolerance, or apology in their poems. This type of poem can show the characters and thoughts of these two poets for the reader.
Habsiyyeh is a collection of poetry topics that have long been known in Persian and Arabic poetry. However, this recognition has varied throughout the different periods, but, given the many commonalities between Arabic and Persian, they share the same themes in this kind of poetry. These common themes are also apparent in terms of social and political conditions and libertarian tendencies in Bahar and Safi poetry. Indeed, the poetics of both poets provide a clear picture of their conditions in prison. The capture and imprisonment events have led both poets to describe the prison and their inner states, and how their confrontation with the prison the audience has an offer. On the other hand, the prison has not been able to negatively influence the poet's poetry feeling and put them into recession, even some parts of their most poems are about prison. These sections shows the character of both poets and the editor of the poetry are the insistence of the two on their resolve and their intentions, and even the prison did not stop them from freedom and liberating. In addition to these similarities, some differences can be observed, including the fact that most of Bahar habits are about the prison itself and its description, while the smoothness of the matter involves more sub-topics. Bahar also cautioned in many issues and events with rulers of his time and even made an apology, but Safi did not do it and never gave up.
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