کمال خجندی، شاعر شیرینسخن سبک عراقی و یکی از درخشانترین چهرههای غزلی شعر فارسی است. یکی از گونههای گفتمانی که در غزلهای کمال کاربرد گستردهای دارد، گفتمان شناختی است. در گفتمان شناختی، فرایند کنشی در تعامل با فرایند شَوِشی ایفای نقش میکند و بههمیندلیل، شناخت بهگونهای باز، متکثر و پویا تبدیل میشود. یکی از مباحثی که در گفتمان شناختی مطرح میشود، گسست و پیوست گفتمانی است. در فرایند گسست و پیوست، منِ شناختی کنشگر با منِ پدیداری و استعلایی او مرتبط میشود؛ حالِ زمانی در ارتباط با نهحال زمانی و مکان گفتهپردازی در ارتباط با نهمکان گفتهای قرار میگیرد. در مقالۀ حاضر، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، گفتمان شناختی و فرایند گسست و پیوست گفتمانی در غزلهای کمال خجندی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار میگیرد. پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است که فرایند گسست و پیوست گفتمانی چگونه در غزل کمال تحقق پیدا میکند و از این طریق چه معنایی تولید میشود. در فرایند گسست و پیوست در غزل کمال، شاهد تعامل دوسویۀ فضای گفتهپردازی و فضای گفتهای، یا دنیای گفتهپرداز و گفتهخوان هستیم. با وجود این، ساختار غالب گفتمان از آنِ گسست است و پیوستهای گفتمانی نیز در خدمت گسست گفتمانی قرار میگیرند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis of disjunction and conjunction disputatious process in sonnets of Kamal Khojandi
Kamal Khojandi is a mellifluous poet of Iraqi styl. He is a those greatest characters of Persian sonnet. One type of disputation which is used widely in sonnets of Kamal is called discourse. Acting process plays a role in discourse when it interacts with Shaveshi process and accordingly recognition turns to be clear and dynamic then it forms a new disputatious system. One of the issues which is discussed in discourse, acting and Shaveshi processes the disputatious disjunction and conjunction. In the process, the acting cognitive ego connects with emergence and transcendental ego; Time now and connects with non Time now and place of discourse is connected with anti-discourse place. This research uses descriptive-analytic method in order to study disputation and disjunction and conjunction disputatious process in sonnets of Kamal. The main question is that, how disjunction and conjunction disputatious process is proven in the sonnets of Kamal and how its meaning is produced. In the process, there is a reciprocal interaction between discourse environment and speech environment or between discourse world and speech processor. Still, the basic structure of disputation is connected to disjunction and disputatious conjunctions is also at the service of disputatious disjunctions.
2. Research methodology
The semiotics pattern of discourse is one of the appropriate methods for analyzing literary works that are effective in identifying internal occasions, discursive spaces, and narrative and content chains. The method of this research is descriptive-analytic with a semiotic approach and library information collection method. In the present study, selected samples of Kamal Ghazals are examined using the method of semiotic analysis and content analysis method.
An enunciative and discursive method is considered as one of the most important methods of semiotic-semantic analysis. In a given system, meaning occurs when a semantic change is created and a semantic change is unthinkable without a viable program that leads to the operation itself. This causes the process of production of meaning to be a productive process. But in the discursive system, the production of meaning is no longer a function of a particular program or operation; meaning can occur phenomenally whenever and wherever it occurs (Shairi, 2009: 116). Due to these features, in the given system meaning has a stabilized state and in a discursive system, meaning becomes fluid and dynamic. The meaning of fluid is also a meaning that has emotional and sensory-perceptual characteristics. To realize meaning and discourse, a discrepancy is formed and this disconnection connects the world of narration to the given world.
Greimas sees this discontinuity as threefold: a disconnection of action, temporal and local ( as cited in: Babak Moein, 2009: 159).
A disconnection of action, that is, a disconnection from the "me" of the narrator to convert it to "no-me" or "him"; the temporal disconnection, the disconnection from the time of "present," the act of saying and saying in the time of "no-present" or " Another time "; and the local discontinuity, the disconnection of" here ", goes into the" no place here "or" other place "of the space (Ibid, 159- 160). In contradiction with this discontinuity, the discussion is disconnection by a discourse. The discourse conjunction is the passage from the given space to the space of action. Namely, the passage from the "No-Me" has been told to the "I" of the spoken space; from "no to now" to "present," and from "no-here" to "here"(Ibid, 161).
In the sonnets of number 13 (Khojandi, 1993: 17), there is a continuous movement between the disconnection and the conjunction. Of course, the discursive conjunction also serves the discontinuity.
At the beginning of the first bit, the narrator, as an activator, brings a disconnection with the term "after today" and connects the discourse to the now-said, the near future. This process creates another discontinuity in discourse, which is an act of disconnection. It is based on the same disconnection that the activator reveals another love (you). Another love is nothing more than the conversion of me to the actor and not to another.
In this research, the process of disconnection and conjunction was studied based on the discourse system. In Kamal's poetry, the actionable and induced species are involved, and these species form a meaning in the interaction with the state process. In Kamal's poetry, various cognitive discourse approaches are visible; In some sonnets, actions form an state and sometimes physical and sensory-perceptual process. In another, state behavior leads to cognitive action. In others, the tension crisis occurs in discourse, which is the result of action behavior or state behavior, and it ends on the basis of state behavior. In the ghazal of perfection, various types of disconnection and conjunction of action, temporal and local occur in interaction. But the dominant structure of discourse disconnection, and discursive conjunction also serve as a discursive disconnection. By using this factor, the actor converts his own "self" into semiotics into "me" and ultimately unifies with an ethics-based superego.
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