عنوان مقاله [English]
Poets have always tried to convey their meaning to the audience in a formidable and effective manner by using literary elements. One of the elements that has always been paid attention to by poets in poetry, both traditional and new, is the element of repetition.
In this essay, it has been attempted to investigate the function of the element of repetition, which is the main axis of inner music, in the poem of Iqbal lahori’s book of eternity to determine to what extent this Persian poet of Urdu speaker has used this industry to express its meaning.
Shemisa sees the repetition as the third method in the rhetorical revision that creates the music of the word. in his view, Repetition appears in the form of repetition of words, repetition of syllable, word, commitment, repetition, repetition of a phrase or sentence in speech (a fresh look at the novels: 59-60). Kazazi also considers the repetition as vocabulary reverse in a way that does not render the words too expensive, coarse and uneven. Otherwise, it is not a repetition of an aesthetic tool, but a weakness and an "abyss" in speech. According to him, various types of repetition are "rhyme rebuilding", "initial rebuilding", "canonization", "hajib", " Rad Al-Ajz ala sadr ", "coexistence" and "commitment" (Badhi, Aesthetics of Persian Speech: 80-48). This research examines the repetition in two visible and invisible branches in Iqbal Lahori’s book of eternity in order to determine which types of repetitions (visible and invisible) are used more in the book of eternity. And also the repetition of which arrays was more of a poet's attention. And what is the purpose behind using the repetition element? And have these repetitions influenced the poet's intention?
- 2 Research Methodology
.the research method is Descriptive-analytic and data collection tool is library using snippet. In this study, by dividing the repetition into two visible and invisible types, we examine the symptoms of the two types of repetitions, the types of puns, the types of phonemes as invisible repetitions in the poetry, as well as the regular and irregular repetition methods throughout the verses as visible repetition symptoms. To do this, all the verses of the book of eternity were examined from this perspective and their representations were recorded in the snippet. In the end, the obtained information was also categorized and coded.
Types of visible and invisible repetitions in the book of eternity:
Table 1: Types of invisible repetitions in the drafts
Type of puns
Scattered phoneme phonetic
Same-beginning and same-ending
As it is seen, the types of puns have most recurrence in the book of eternity. The types of puns used in the book of eternity are: complete pun, distorting pun, redundant pun, repetitive pun, contradictory pun, present pun, connected pun, derivative pun, pseudo-derivative pun, linear pun, word pun and combination pun. After the pun, same-beginning has the largest share in invisible repetitions.
Table 2: Types of visible repetitions in the book of eternity
Repetition of the word over a verse
Regular repetitions of one or more words at the beginning of the verses
Repeat the word over a few verses
Rad Al-Ajz ala sadr(bringing a word at the end of a verse until the beginning)
Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze(bringing a word at the beginning of a verse until the end)
Visible repetitions in Iqbal’s poems include repeating the word during a single verse, repeating the verse during a poem, repeating one or more words spatially over several verses, regular repetition of one or more words at the beginning of the verses, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze; repetition of words encompasses a large amount of this repetition.
But the visible repetitions of the book of eternity are sometimes more than a word and include a group of words; this kind of apparent repetition is one of the boosting methods.
The inner music is one of the musical effects of poetry, the most important of which is the repetition, because many arrays in the field of internal music are formed on the basis of repetition. Repetition was studied in two visible and invisible branches in the book of eternity, and various effects were observed in this work.
The types of puns, same-beginning, same-ending, same-beginning and same-ending, the scattered phoneme phonetic are the invisible repetitions of the poems of Iqbal in the book of eternity. Visible repetitions include repetition of the word during a single verse, repetition of a hemistich or verse in the form of a poem, repetition of one or more words spatially over several verses, regular repetitions of one or more words at the beginning of verses, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze and Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze. According to the obtained statistics, Iqbal is more willing to use visible repetitions than invisible repetitions. The invisible repetitions, without being apparent, increase the richness of the inner music of the poem.
As seen, pun is the most used invisible repetition of the book of eternity. Puns play a significant role not only in the poetry but also in the rhymes, under the title of exquisite rhymes. Other types of invisible repetitions include phonological types. But according to the survey, among the Iqbal goals in applying the repetition element, one can mention the following:
1. Strengthening inner music and its richness. 2. Helping to better convey concepts to the audience
3. Highlighting the underlying concept and emphasizing it
Therefore by repeating consonants and vowels, Iqbal not only has consolidated the inner music, but also has brought about the concepts and themes of interest and has achieved what is called the magic of adjacency
1. Almalakeh, Nazek, Qazaya Alsher Almo’aser, T14, Beyrut, Dar Al’elm Lelmola’een, 2007.
2. Ibrahim Tabar, Ibrahim, Structural Analysis of “Heritage” Poem by Akhavan Sales, Quarterly of Literary Research, 13th year, No. 53, pp. 9-34, Scientific Association of Persian Language and Literature, Tehran, Autumn, 2016.
3. Barani, Mohammad & Nasim Bahar, Ali. Repetition in artistic emotional and lingual concepts of Sa’di’s sonnets, Journal of Lyrical literature, 10th year, No. 18, pp. 29-50, Sistan and Balouchestan University, Spring and summer, 2012.
4. Barani, Mohammad & Asadi, Ayoub. An investigation of pun in Foroughi Bastami’s Sonnets, Journal of Lyrical Literature, 12th year, No. 22, pp. 31-50, Sistan and Balouchestan University, Spring and Summer, 2014.
5. Dad, Sima. The encyclopedia of literary terms, vil. 4, Tehran: Morvarid, 2008.
6. Rastgoo, Mohammad. The art of speech decoration (the technique of rhetoric). Tehran: Samt. 2003.
7. Shafi’ee Kadkani, Mohammadreza. The music of poem, Tehran: Agah, 1991.
8. Shamisa, Sirous. A new look to rhetoric, Ferdous Publication, Tehran, 2007.
9. Kordabadi, Sondos, Jamaliah Altekrar Aldey Alsmattani, Journal of Scientific Association of Iranian for Arabic language and its literature, Quarterly of Mohkamah, Vol. 6, Year 16, pp. 33-50, Autumn, 1431.
10. Kozazi, Mirjalalodin, Rhetoric, An aesthetical study of Persian language, Vol. 4, Markaz Publication, 2002.
11. Lahouri, Iqbal, Javidnameh, Publisher: Dr. Vahid Ghoreyshi, Khas Publication, 1982.
12. Homa’ee, Jalalodin, The techniques of literary devices and rhetoric, Tehran: Tous, 1994.