عنوان مقاله [English]
Every human being has a taste of suffering during his lifetime, and there is no controversy in this description. What seems important is the most important causes of human suffering. As many other poets, Fahad al-Askar has utilized poetry to express human pain. Although in his poetry his personal pain -brought forth from emotions such as love and loneliness, alienation and distance from home- is obvious, yet he has also been particularly concerned with the expression of social pains. It is worth noting that he lived in a closed society that regarded any kind of criticism as a kind of new-fangle. For that reason, he stood against the decaying culture of his time, and this led to his exclusion and isolation from society. Fahd al-Askar has suffered a lot of personal and social pain due to this isolation. He is, in fact, the spokesperson for the pain of his own community, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The poet is at the heart of the community and is not indifferent to the pain and injustice of his community. He gave the poetry another color and smell, and put it at the service of the people to express their problems. Violence, injustice, and the observance of human suffering and pain are among the constant concerns of Fahd al-Askar. He always thinks of a human being who, in the shadow of the injustices and hardships, only receives pain and distress in his life.
1-1. Problem Statement and research questions
The present research studies the issue of suffering in the poet's poetry in the areas of ontology, teleology, deontology, and causes of pain and suffering. The author of this study is to answer the following questions:
From the ontology’s point of view on the subject of suffering, what is the most avoidable and irresistible pain of the poet?
What are the main causes of pain and suffering from the poet's point of view?
What is the goal and purpose of suffering from the poet's point of view?
From the poet's point of view, what is the task of man in confronting pain and suffering?
A hypothesis, which is suggested in this paper, is that the inevitable pains and sufferings of the poet are more of the type his personal pains while his intriguing pains are more of the type of the social pains. It is also added that the ultimate goals of pain and suffering in the poetry of Fahd al-Askar is an invitation to liberty and freedom from oppression, and moreover, strengthening the spirit of martyrdom. In this research, the author will respond to each of these questions after briefly mentioning the biography of the poet.
2.1 Objectives and necessity of research
The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the nature and concept of pain and suffering in the poetry of contemporary poet of Kuwait, Fahad al-Askar. The importance and necessity of research is that by studying the pain and suffering of this poet, one can see the social situation and the problems of that society and at the same time, it gives the researchers the opportunity to compare the common sufferings, difficulties and social status of the two societies by comparing Arab and Persian poets.
3.1. Detailed research method
In this paper, the author applies his inductive and descriptive, analytical method, relying on the poet's poetry to study in pain and suffering in his poems. At the beginning, the poetry about pain and suffering are elicited, and then categorized, and lastly they are put into the analysis and the ontology, endocrinology, deontology and the causes of pain and suffering are expressed.
One of the most important issues related to pain and suffering is the issue of ontology and here, the general concept of the ontology is meant which discusses the existence or absence of pain and its types. The most discussed issue in this field is dedicated to its various designs and dimensions. Various types of pain and suffering can be classified into two categories of inevitable pain and avoidable pain, based on how it has been faced with. Inevitable pain is the pain that is unwittingly suffered by humans, and they have no choice at all to accept or reject it. In fact, there is no escape from these kinds of pains, and they are part of the tragic life of man. The most inevitable pains in Fahd al-Askar's opinion are: loneliness and nostalgia, discrimination against the rights of women without paying attention to their values, lost aspirations, love And parting. Given the essence of the inevitable pain, the poet’s only suggested way to face these kinds of pain includes patience, forbearance and trust in God; that is, man has no escape from this kind of pain but to practice patience and tolerance. The most important intriguing pain from the poet's point of view is the lack of feelings and humanity and the expansion of class distance in society, the expansion of the spirit of hypocrisy in society, the spread of war and insecurity in the world, the tragedy and the plight of the Palestinian people. One of the ultimate goals of suffering in Fahd al-Askar's poetry is to call for liberation and freedom from oppression. Sometimes the ultimate goal for suffering is beyond rebellion, and it is the strengthening of the spirit of testimony and self-sacrifice as well as the spirit of martyrdom. In the view of the poet, sometimes the duty of humankind who suffers from pains, either they are whether avoidable or inevitable is patience and trust in God. Another duty is to strengthen the spirit of unity in defense of the homeland and the return to religion. The poet calls out his people whom are away from religion to return to it as a solution to their pain and sufferings. In the eyes of the man of the past, the most important causes of pain and suffering are doing sins and being away from the sacred, weakness of faith, and attachment to the worldly life. From the perspective of contemporary man, the cause of suffering can be the deprivation of the natural and human rights and not living the modern life. In his poetry, the poet points to the primordial rights of humans and turn against their violations like inequality, incivility, lack of freedom and non-compliance with the rights of the weak.
1- In the ontology of pain, Fahd al-Askar's pains and sufferings can be categorized into two classes of irresistible and avoidable pains. The most important irresistible pains of the poet are: loneliness, pain of womanhood, lost desires and the pain of love and parting. The most important irresistable pains in the poet's eyes are the lack of emotion and feeling and humanity, the expansion of class distance in society, the spread of corruption and prostitution in Society, the reversal of values and the replacement of anti-values, the spirit of hypocrisy, war and insecurity, and the plight of the Palestinian people. His irresistible pains are more of the kind of personal pains while social pains and sufferings are mostly among her avoidable sufferings.
2- The ultimate goal of suffering in Fahd al-Askar's poetry is to call for liberation and freedom from oppression and fortifying the spirit of martyrdom. In the poet's eyes, the only solution for some sorts of pains such as parting and separation in which there is no hope of joining is patience, silence, even crying. It is because one can tolerate the suffering of the parting of beloved only in these ways.
3- In the poet’s point of view, sometimes the duty of the suffering man is patience and trust in God, whether the suffering is inevitable or avoidable. The other duties of suffering and oppressed human beings are to strengthen the spirit of unity in defense of the homeland, to keep alive the spirit of hope for a clear future, the uprising and the struggle against tyranny and occupation, and to return to religion.
4- The causes of pain and suffering from the perspective of the past man in Fahad al-Askar's poems are: sinning, transgressing, attachment to the worldly life versus the viewpoint of contemporary man, which are the denial of natural rights and human rights, retrospect, and not living the modern life.
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