شیخ فیضیدکنی (1595-1547م) از شاعران پارسیگوی هند است. او به دربار جلالالدین اکبرشاه راه یافت و به مرتبۀ امیری و ملکالشعرایی رسید. او در قصیده، غزل و مثنوی صاحبمقامی شامخ است. فیضی به تقلید از نظامی، مثنوی «نل و دمن» را به نظم کشیدهاست. پدیدۀ پیکرگردانی (Metamorphoses) و (Transformation) که به دگرگونی چهره یا تغییر شکل موجودات تعبیر شدهاست، در قصهها و افسانههای مردم هند جایگاه ویژهای دارد. فراوانی پیکرگردانی در قصهها و افسانههای جهان و بهطور خاص در میان قصهها و افسانههای مردم هند که نسلبهنسل روایت شدهاست، نشان از اندیشههای ریشهدار اساطیری در تفکرات عامیانۀ مردم سرزمین هند دارد. شخصیتهایی که دارای قدرت سحر و جادو هستند، در هر جای افسانهها و قصهها که نیاز باشد، دست به تغییر حالت میزنند و در قالب استحالههای گوناگون نمایان میشوند. این پژوهش، به شیوة توصیفی- تحلیلی و استواری بر چارچوب نظری میکوشد به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که شاخصترین انواع پیکرگردانی و همچنین کارکرد و نقش این پیکرگردانیها در افسانۀ غنایی «نل و دمن» چیست؟ مطابق دستاوردهای تحقیق، بیشترین نوع استحالههای موجود در افسانۀ «نل و دمن» مربوط به استحالۀ انسانی و استحالۀ انسان به حیوان است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The metamorphoses are well-known in the enchantment of "Nell and Deman"
Sheikh Faiz Decani (1595-1547) is a Persian poet of India. In 1588, he came to the court of Jalal al-Din Akbar Shah, the great Emperor of Gurkani of India, and reached the rank of Amiri and Malakul Sha'ari. Feyzi is the speaker of Persian language in India. He is the son of a poet and son of Masnavi. Faizi, in imitation of the military, has brought Masnavi "Nell and Damman" into order. The metamorphoses and transformation phenomena that have been interpreted as transforming the face or the transformation of beings have a special place in the stories and legends of the people of India. The abundance of exponents in the stories and legends of the world, and in particular among the stories and legends of the people of India, which has been narrated for generations, reflects the rooted mythological thoughts in the folk thoughts of the people of the land of India. Persons who have magic powers move around everywhere in the myths and stories that they need, and they appear in the form of various transformations. The present article tries to investigate sculptors in the beloved fairy tales of Nell and Dean Faiz Dakni.
Shaikh Faizi (1547-1595) was a Persian speaking Indian poet who was introduced to Akbar`s court, the great emperor of Mughal Empire in India, and became poet laureate. Faizi was the leading Persian literature scholar in Indian subcontinent. He hold a high position in composing Qasida, ghazal, and masnavi. Faizi written Nal o Daman in imitation of Nizami Ganjavi.
Metamorphoses and transformation implies on a change of form or nature of a subject/person in the story –either a myth, an epic, etc.- and is a frequent and exemplified issue just like other supernatural incidents in mythology and epic, is considered to be a symbolic report of curious ancient man`s desires and wishes. Metamorphoses or transformation which is defined as facial transformation or change in the form of the creature, holds a specific position in Indian people`s stories and mythology. Affluence of metamorphoses in global stories and myths, especially in Indian mythology the way it is narrated from one generation to the other, implies on rooted and deep mythological thoughts in folk thinking setup of Indian nation. Characters having supernatural and magical powers, would transform in myths and stories whenever it is required and appear in various transformed shapes. The story theme of Nal o Daman follows the Nala and Damayanti story in Mahabharata, the ancient Indian epic, and just like Mahabharata it is full of supernatural incidents and extraordinary events. Presence of entities such as demons and fairies and occurrence of incidents which does not belong to the actual world put an emphasis on the idea. Of course unbelievable and amazing phenomenon is observed in almost every Indian myth. Reincarnation, transduction, soul transportation and transformation are elements observed in Nal o Daman epic. In Hindu religion it is believed that beasts benefit character, intelligence and perception thus every beast in the story which turns to a hero, has a specific name. In present study, descriptive-analysis methods are applied based on theoretical framework to answer this fundamental question: what are the most significant types of metamorphoses in Nal o Daman epic? What are the function and impression of them?
The research method in this article is an underlying case with a correlation approach.In this research, documentary methods (surveying descriptive)and surveying have been used to collect information.
Nal o Daman is a new narration from Indian epic Nala and Damayanti of Mahabharata. Faizi rewrote the mentioned epic with few change in details. Nal o Daman is edited in the same conceptual framework as is found in Mahabharata. The major theme of Nal o Daman is love. In Nal o Daman, main character is a woman who is beautiful, wise, kind and creative. Sometimes the main character turns to the pioneer hero of the story.
In Nal o Daman epic, metamorphoses is often done by Brahman. The Brahman as a Pir – a spiritual master- is one of the brilliant features of the epic. He is representative of wisdom and knowledge. He realizes the code language, forecasts and guides Nal. Sometimes he appears as an oracular assistance on Nal`s way, guides him, and even appears as a young hero himself.
“Snake” plays an effective role in metamorphoses in Nal o Daman epic. Snake is the renewing agent for vital force. She jolts the poison into Nal`s body, thus the snake becomes gestated from him and gives a further birth to Nal. In Nal o Daman epic, snake actually represents the constant transformation of death into life and double polarization of the universe. That indicates the life is permeated from the death, and vice versa.
Metamorphoses, as an extraordinary and supernatural incident is an integral part of Indian story and myth. In Nal o Daman too, we observe that every incident is rooted in supernatural forces. In this epic, emphasize on supernatural phenomenon is taking place to transform and concept the characters. What is contemplative in Nal o Daman is multiplicity and variety of metamorphoses.
Based on the research founding, the most happening transformation in Nal o Daman epic is related to human transformation, and transformation from human form to animal form. In this epic subjects such as stability and endurance in facing troubles, sacrifice and forgiveness, patience and fortitude, love and attachment, instability of oppression and injustice, and importance of family life and its position are highlighted. The major theme of the metamorphoses narration is based on love and attachment. Women play a vital role in incidents of the epic. In this myth, metamorphoses happens to the hero due to passing from one level of the story to the other, and eventually, the hero would reach his primitive state at the end. In Nal o Daman, metamorphoses happens to award or punish people or entities. Actually, human being is transformed and breaks the rational order of the world to create a new world beyond the existing one, in a search for eternal peace and meaning. Faizi`s Nal o Daman epic holds a significant value as a text in which the author attempts to picture the Hindu mental setup to image mythological beliefs in his love story. Thus, because metamorphoses and transformation is shaping the major foundation of the story, this valuable epic would be reviewed to recognize the sacred elements involved in Hindu metamorphoses.
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