عشق از بنمایههای اعتقادی بهاءولد است که در هر سه حوزۀ خداشناسی، جهانشناسی و انسانشناسی مورد توجه است. از نگاه بهاءولد معرفت خداوند و رسیدن به آن در گرو محبّت است. این مقاله با تبیین مقولۀ عشق در ذهن و زبان بهاءولد به تفسیر نوع مواجهۀ او با خالق به عنوان پرسش اصلی پژوهش، میپردازد. بررسی نوع نگاه بهاءولد به ویژگیهای عشق، عاشق و معشوق و همچنین دیدگاه او در باب جمالپرستی و رؤیت حق که با روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی صورت گرفته، این نتیجه را به دست می دهد که او از خدایی دیگرگونه سخن گفته و تصویری از خدا در ذهن تداعی میکند که مخاطب را به اندیشۀ تجسیم و تجسد رهنمون میشود. بنابراین عشق در اعتقاد بهاء در پیوندی ناگسستنی با رؤیت قرار میگیرد که اندیشههای دیگری چون جمالپرستی را موجب میشود. محبّت به تعریف وی، مثلثی است که از سه ضلع عشق الله به بنده، عشق بنده به حق و عشق بنده به مخلوقات به عنوان تجلیگاه حق تشکیل میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Face of Allah in the Ma’aref of Bahavalad in the Dialectic of Love and Servitude
The true face of Bahvalad has not been portrayed as a great and
rebellious mystic except in the frame of thought and work of his famous son, Mawlana Balkhi. However, the accuracy of the text of Ma’aref, which is the only work left by him, depicts a mystic who is drowning in the sea of God''s love and explains and interprets all concepts and themes around the category of divine love. Bahavahad ''s view of the world, man, and God is a view of the window of love and grace that together makes his mystical and epistemological path unique and distinguished, and gives it the color and scent of richness. The place of love in bahavahad’s thought is so pivotal and important that basically his definition of love and affection and his way of making love, explains his relationship with God and depicts his theology in the form of lyrical images.
The present study is based on the text of education, which is the only surviving work of Bahavalad, and is conducted in a descriptive-analytical manner. In this way, considering the existing definitions of the component of love and affection, which is the main theme of lyrical literature and its special meaning in various fields, we have examined this category in the text of ma’aref so that we can define it accurately from the point of view of bahavalad and explain the topics related to the basis of love and extract evidence from the text of ma’aref in order to achieve the goals and answer the main problem of the research. Content analysis is a method that can be applied to various types of messages contained in literary works, articles, official documents, etc. (Riffe Daniel, Lacy Stephen, 1388: 23) or any technique by which the specific characteristics of the message are methodically and accurately identified
for scientific inference. Accuracy and objectivity ensure that the analysis is based on specific rules; To enable scholars to achieve the same desired results from research. (Taleghani, 1390: 95-96)
Bahavalad, as a mystic of intuition, has referred to this feature of love everywhere in the teachings and referred to it as "imperfection," and in answer to this fateful question which he utters in his own language, he refers to the in definability and imperfection of love: “If they say what is love or what is it about? I say that several thousand prophets (peace be upon them) lost their bodies in love. Whoever seeks how to taste tasteless love, whoever argues about love and affection will never taste that which was between lover and beloved.” (Bahavalad, 1352,1: 144)
After indescribability, the first characteristic he mentions for love is that it is innate. According to him, love is a feeling that has been deposited in all human beings and everyone has benefited from it. Bahavalad also considered the flow of love and its prevalence throughout the world, so that in his view, love is the source of all joys and the source of life and life. In his view, love is a position of obedience that leads man to peace and tranquility. Undoubtedly, all human beings seek pleasure, joy and happiness. Following a discussion on the manner of servitude and man''s position towards the Creator, he considers love to be the end of all these pleasures that every human being seeks to achieve based on his needs. The needs that, in bahavalad’s opinion, are met by using the letters of God. From the statements of Bahavalad in various places in Ma''aref, it
can be concluded that he believes in at least three types of love: First, God''s love for servant, God''s servant love to God and virtual love based on the manifestation of the creator in the artifact, which is called the love of mirrors, signs and curtains; According to the third type of love, beauty and the acquisition of taste and sight are among the fundamental categories of Bahavalad''s thought, which have been presented in various ways instead of the text of Ma’aref.
His desire to taste and understand the beauties of creation stems from the idea of manifestation in mysticism. In the sense that he, like most mystics, considers all the parts and particles of the universe as a manifestation of the divine essence, which they represent as mirrors of the beauty of truth and if people are unable to see this effect, it is because they either do not have an opinion or their opinion is tainted; Therefore, he always seeks to see and see the beauty of God and considers it the highest rank and perfection of nearness. The loving relationship between God and man in his belief is also argued and justified by verse 54 of Surah Ma''idah. The God he portrays and remembers his love affairs with is not only the god of the two worlds and the god of heaven and earth, He is a god who is worshiped by Sultan al-''Ulama and in the path of servitude, he follows observations that are rooted in his loving beliefs. The way he chooses and always advises to accompany and express love to the essence of truth is the remembrance of God. Of all the spiritual-contemplative methods on the words of the Prophet and the traditions of Sufism, the profound recitation of the Qur''an, ritual prayers, and the like, the mention is the best way that can liberate the spiritual capacity and enable the piece of divine light within the mystic to rejoin his counterpart. (corbin. 1387: 112) He also introduces the remembrance of God as the life-giver of the hearts and souls of the servants by comparing dhikr to the wind of Saba, which is the messenger of the beloved and revives his soul.
According to bahavalad view, knowing God and achieving it depends on love. As he brings these two categories together and always emphasizes the indescribability of love. According to him, love is a series of two series, one of which is held by the lover and the other by the beloved. He also, like many others, takes the beloved in this direction and explicitly acknowledges that love first comes from the beloved and it is his desire that kindles the flame in the soul of the lover. Beauty is another motif of his thought that makes the lover strives as a motive of love. The beauties of creation are also the manifestation of the truth, the desire for which stems from the love of the divine essence. It follows that he permits virtual love and accepts it as an exercise in true love. According to him, a true lover considers the whole world as a manifestation of the beloved and has a special view of his surroundings. He knows the movement of all particles, both in the universe and in his body and soul, from God, and in this way he does not even hesitate to justify and interpret bodily and sensual pleasures with the above thought, and this is the feature that distinguishes him from others. Although his definition and description, and even the characteristics he enumerates for the lover and the beloved, have much in common with other mystics, but the way he deals with the true lover and the image he presents of God is a unique and distinguished method. According to the examples mentioned in the text of "Ma''aref", he speaks without any fear of another god and evokes a human image of God in his mind, which leads the audience to the idea of incarnation and incarnation. His God is a God who is in the face of the servant and his vision is inevitable and certain. His belief in seeing his beloved is to the extent that he always emphasizes and acknowledges how he can know and accept a god he does not see at all. Seeing from bahavalad’s point of view is like love coming from the right, as he explicitly says that if he shows, what can I do not see. Thus, in his belief, love is inextricably linked with vision, which gives rise to other ideas such as aesthetics. Love, by his definition, is a triangle that consists of the three sides of God''s love for the servant, the servant''s love for the truth, and the servant''s love for the creatures as the manifestation of the truth. As a result, he not only did not reject virtual love, aesthetics and aesthetics, but also endorsed them with great emphasis. Where beauty is the motive of love, and in the view of beauty it is praiseworthy, seeing the truth is also a real-life event that follows preparation through virtual love. And what brings servant closer to perfection in this path is the continuous remembrance of God, which has caused remembrance to be one of the most frequent topics of knowledge in the field of divine love. As it is mentioned in the text as the language of lovemaking, and according to him, the condition for seeing and seeing the beloved is to mention him.
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