نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور(نویسنده مسئول)

10.22111/jllr.2021.21342.2093

چکیده

عنصر تمایزبخش مکتب وقوع منحصر در گزارش شاعر از واقعیت‌های عینی عشق زمینی است که از تجربۀ خاص شاعر به دست می‌آید. کمال هنروری شاعر وقوعی در این است که تجربیات عاشقانه خود را بی پرده و با سوز و گداز تمام بر زبان بیاورد. مسالۀ اصلی پژوهش حاضر یافتن پاسخ برای این پرسش ها است که واقع‌گویی شاعرانی مثل ولی دشت بیاضی در چه زمینه‌ها و مسائلی است؟ و عناصر تمایز بخش شعر او چیست؟  بر این اساس با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوا، گونه‌های نوآورانه‌ای در غزلیات ولی دشت بیاضی قابل استخراج است که با بسامد تقریبی هر کدام از گونه ها را به پنج نوع تقسیم کرده‌ایم: 1- غزل اظهار کدورت و شکایت 2- غزل اعراض3- غزل تهدید و تحکم 4- غزل رشک و غیرت­ورزی 5-غزل اضطراب و تردید. دقت در چنین گونه‌هایی نشان می‌دهد که وقوعیان در حوزۀ عواطف و احساسات با چرخشی اعتراض‌آمیز و گاه پرخاش‌جویانه روند محتوایی غزل فارسی را تغییر داده و با پرداختن به جزئیات عاطفی و احساسی، گونه‌های جدیدی بر آن افزوده‌اند تا جایی که بیشتر تصاویر شعری آنان مابه‌ازای خارجی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of Voqhuei lyrics (Case study: mowlana Mohammad Vali,DashtBayazi)

نویسندگان [English]

  • nematollah panahi 1
  • Morteza chermagi omrani 2

1 Ph.D in Persian Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University Of Ferdowsi, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Dept, Payame Noor University,Iran

چکیده [English]

 

1. Introduction

This research is a kind of content typology to find out the stylistic features of one of the Voquhi poets of the late tenth century; with the advent of the Voqu School, the most important of the stylistic component in poetry is created and its main factor is poets' realistic pay attention to the details of the world around them. So that, “this group, which provided the ground for the divine love to turn into real life experiences, to simple style put forth the expression of true love and the realities of earthly love and affection  worlds” (Fotoohi, 2006: 100). The main extract of the lyricism of the Voquhi poets form, the emotional and feelings realities that the passionate poet has as direct and lived experience of in his heart, The recognition of this  stylistic features in the format of lyric , departure from the standards that had been rooted in the lyric horizons, for centuries(1010-907 AH). The poets make new claims and major linguistic and content changes occur in the lyric. Including, the lyric language will trend into popular language and literary techniques are dying out. The lyric also goes beyond its mystical and metaphysical tradition, and poets without a coherent ideology are merely reporters of virtual love. The pervasive monotony resonates in expressing realistic feelings and emotions arising from love, and lyrical themes such as expressions of glory and opacity, worries, threats, and so on are very frequency. Undoubtedly, the footsteps of these changes must be sought in the context of the Safavid lyric, which is the “Voqu School”. The aim of the profound and fundamental changes in poetry after Jami's time, entry the existence elements of daily life and being earthly the concepts of the lyric that were scattered to that time but were the poets’ pay attention during this period. In addition, by overcoming the dignity of the school language, it "transformed the principles of classical aesthetics"(Shams Langeroudi, 1996:9). On the other hand, the political policy of the government during this period required that "due the lack of unity of the universe, poetry was opened up to the general assemblies and the market of Qaṣida became slackened and therefore the lyric became more popular" (Zarrinkoub,1996:385). Accordingly, the form of the lyric is the main reference for scholars of this period and due to the fundamental changes in the voqu poetry, certain themes are introduced into the lyric and the main question focuses the differentiating elements of the new types of lyric in this age.
 
 

Research methodology

This research is the Grounded which descriptive - analytical method the poetic evidence from the Diwan of Vali, DashtBayazi search and extracted, then the typology and preliminary categorization of their documents are divided into five major types. In the separated types, the main criterion of their frequency and emergence is based on 377 lyrics. The following is separated each of the subtypes of each of the sub-branches to show what the form and components of Voquhi   poetry and in this way the distinctive elements of Valid,Dashtyari poetry are expressed.
 
 

Discussion

Reflection, in the lyrical themes of Vali, DashtBayazi , will introduce us to five main types: 1- Lyrics says opacity and complaints , 2- Lyrics of disclaimer,3- Lyrics of domination & threat, 4- Lyric of envy and jealousy, 5- Lyrics of anxiety and uncertainty which in the collection of   Vali, DashtBayazi ,   lyric takes a fixed form. The lyricism of the Persian literature is based on the ancient tradition that does not allow the beloved to complain about beloved oppression over lover speech. The Lovers who love bragging will never have the right to complain of beloved, rather, in this dangerous way, falling love assay is patience rather than complaining. This principle in vogue poetry is subject to Substantial change, so that the poet not only in fantasy worlds, but also in the earthly world has no fear of telling what is in his heart. Thus, “a pure of Voquhi verse is a cut from an explicit reality represented in speech. This cut of reality is a real image in speech, not fantastic image”. (Fotohi 2016:333) On this basis, most of the lyrics of Vali, DashtBayazi have been devoted into five types; each of them has different causes, and makes the highlight species of the Voquhi lyrics.
 
 

Conclusion

Evidence from  mowlana Vali,DashtBayazi   lyrics  suggests that new types of lyric can be found in the pioneers of the voqu school   poetry, which is the distinguishing feature of this period's poems, Therefore, since the poets of this period focus on reporting emotions and  feelings related to everyday scenes, minor  and predominantly personal and inner romantic events , the species such as  : 1- Lyrics says opacity and complaints(24.5%) , 2- Lyrics of disclaimer(16%),3- Lyrics of domination & threat(14%), 4- Lyric of envy and jealousy(24.9%), 5- Lyrics of anxiety and uncertainty(20.6%) which in the collection of   Vali, DashtBayazi ,   lyric takes a fixed form.
It also turns out that the arena of creating poetic images in a tangible, intangible, and non-abstract space is the accepted norm of school poets who abduct their overbearing attitude and objectify lyrical concepts to the point where most images their poems are for us exterior and reflect the emotions and feelings of their being. Literally and linguistically, various social and cultural factors have led to the fact that, after the ninth century, the poetic language of as a result of its generalization in the alley and market gradually becomes the simplest and most unobtrusive form possible, and in the context of themes, the Voquhian poetry has no worldview. Also, the poets' particular attitude of voqu school towards the "love"    avoid them  from general love, general beloved, and all that is absolute. Based on the poetic evidence examined, it can be said that the poets of this period look critically at past romances and the rules governing  on the relationship of lover and beloved, which had more or less established rituals.
 
 

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