یکی از موضوعاتی که حضرت امام خمینی (ره) و ابن فارض در آن وحدت نظر دارند، فنای فی الله است. فنا از والاترین درجات وجودى بشر و از عالىترین کمالات جهان هستى است که اساس و پایه بقا است و در عرفان نظری و عملی از جایگاه ویژهای برخوردار است. هم ابن فارض در تائیه کبری و هم حضرت امام خمینی (ره) در دیوان اشعار و سایر آثار خود، از فنا و نیستی بسیار سخن گفته و آن را اساس بقا شمردهاند. این پژوهش بر آن است تا مشخص کند که فنا به عنوان یکی از مهمترین احوالات عرفانی در دیدگاه این دو عارف چه جایگاه و ویژگیهایی دارد؟ روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر، تحلیلی –توصیفی و ابزار مورداستفاده کتابخانهای است. برآیند پژوهش نشان میدهد که این دو عارف بزرگ از خود و خواهشهای نفسانی رها شدن را شرط فنای فی الله میدانند و با تأکید بر سه مرتبه فنا یعنی محو، طمس و محق، دیدگاههای خود راجع به فنا را، در آثار خود نمایان میسازند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Fana (Death) and its Three Levels from the Perspective of Ibn al-Farid and Imam Khomeini
Mystical tendencies and thoughts are explicitly expressed in Imam Khomeini and Ibn Farid’s works. Both figures have spoken of positions and ways. Accordingly, Ibn Farid’s Taeyah and Imam Khomeini’s Divan are filled with concepts and discussions related to positions, states, and ways of conduct.
A subject that is agreed upon by both Imam Khomeini and Ibn Farid concerns fana fi Allah (death in God); in this regard, both mystics believe that to achieve unity, the wayfarer should at first be separated from his apparent existence and then become immersed in the beloved to the extent that there would be no wayfarer anymore. Following this stage, the mystic shall find himself in a romantic unity with the everlasting intended. Some assert that this state which would be the end of the wayfarer’s journey and a conclusion to his stance and status, is of indescribable nature and cannot be put into words. Albeit, the death of the wayfarer, the fading of his determinations, and his rise require “survival”. As wayfarers themselves would say, when the mystic achieves “fana fi Allah”, he would then attain “Baqa’a Allah” which is the beginning of a new, fresh life; till now, the wayfarer had been engaged in “Sayyer ela Allah” (journey to God) which would then become “Sayyer fi Allah” (journey in God) (Qani, 2004, p. 336).
Despite the fact that the Egyptian Farid belonged to the early seventh century A.H. and Imam Khomeini was a contemporary mystic, examinations into their mystical thoughts demonstrate the universality of mysticism; accordingly, it does not pertain to a particular person or a period. Following the two figures’ correct definitions of fana fi Allah in Islamic mysticism (The Quran and Islam), they proceed to draw Tariq fi Allah for the wayfarer as the desirable end of man. Through theory and practice, the wayfarer may acquire eternal life and Baqa’a Allah. Furthermore, paying attention to mystical teachings and using them to attain salvation and a better life in today’s era which is faced with a variety of crises appear necessary more than ever.
Death is one of the important notions addressed by both theoretical and practical mysticism, as well as the mystics who had stepped into this area. Ibn Farid and Imam Khomeini have also addressed this concept in their works. In this study, the following questions were posed: What are Ibn Farid and Imam Khomeini’s definitions of death? What are the similarities and possible differences between Ibn Farid and Imam Khomeini’s views with respect Fana fi Allah and its levels?
The present inquiry was conducted using the descriptive-analytical method and library resources. Here, death, its types and its features in Ibn Farid’s Divan and works of Imam Khomeini are addressed so as to shed light on their views with respect to this area.
Generally, three types of Fana are discussed in mysticism: 1. Fana an vajoud al-sawaa (i.e. the unity of existence); 2. Fana an shahoud al-sawaa (i.e. the unity of intuition); and 3. Fana an Iradah al-sawaa (i.e. wanting nothing except for the desires of the intended or the intended themselves). All three are mentioned in Taeiyah Kubra (Helmi, Bita; 189-190). Fana is the end of the wayfarer’s perception and awareness due to the appearance of the divine against his conscience; subsequently, his entire condemned traits would be diminished and replaced by honorable characteristics. Fana involves three stages: Mahv (obliteration), Temes (defacement), and Muhiq (annihilation). In his mystical ballade, “Taeiyah Kubra”, Ibn Farid has carefully mentioned these three stages through a set of mystical verses. According to Imam Khomeini, when the wayfarer liberates himself from his own momentariness and sensuality, he ventures toward attaining his key desire and the divine. Consequently, Imam Khomeini has also spoken of the presence of heart in practice, character, and inherent nature (Khomeini, 2006: 435) along with the secrets, the hidden and the cryptic (Hamou, 1981, p. 206). This, in turn, is compatible with the aforementioned three stages of Fana.
In Fana fi Allah, the wayfarer should disremember himself through his lover. Ibn Farid assumes that the wayfarer forgets himself as the virtue of his intended becomes apparent to him, hence meeting his end from himself. This is due to the fact that the condition for stepping into this path necessitates silencing and suppressing of all temptations and turning one’s heart towards the divine, while the obstacles involve immersion in materialism. Imam Khomeini also believes that to reach the beloved, one should let go of others because it is only the beloved that is real while others are nothing but a mirage; and its only sign is death in the beloved. According to Imam Khomeini, there is no value to existence and objects compared to the real love and the divine.
Ibn Farid believes death, sacrifice and becoming a mortal along the way of reaching love and the beloved is the condition for achieving bliss and immortal life. Though such a venture involves difficulty and challenges, it would also be the best gift in case of attaining the beloved’s acceptance. Otherwise, until one does not become a martyr of the path towards the beloved and the real intended, one must refuse to even imagine reaching such a goal; accordingly, it is only in death and separation from self that the wayfarer would become one with beloved. In fact, sacrificing oneself is the least one can do for their beloved and attaining their love and kindness. Otherwise, the existence of the lover would be of no use.
Similar to Ibn Farid, Imam Khomeini also believes that total contentment is to see the face of the beloved and reaching union with them, and it is attainable though one’s nonexistence and death along the path to the beloved; and anyone who fears such a way towards the beloved is an outsider to this kind and devoid of humanity. Happiness and virtue is overshadowed by meeting the beloved and a sense of restlessness regarding the distance to the beloved. The way to reach the beloved is then to become nonexistent and separated from self; until one deems oneself as nothing in the face of the beloved, one would fail to achieve real existence.
The term Fana in mysticism is originated from the Quran. Some believe Fana and nonexistence to be the fruit of a divine grace and an out-of-control notion, caused by being present in the face of the divine, the heart, and the imparting of the divine to the heart. This is the very state that leads to the most perfect position for the mystic and his ultimate end, i.e. unity and connection. Though Ibn Farid has been more explicit in his Divan regarding the concept of Fana compared to Imam Khomeini, both deem Fana as the ultimate level of journey and conduct, after which lies baqa’a Allah. There are many similarities addressed by both figures with respect to Fana and its features; they believe momentariness, carnal desires, arrogance, and expressing existence and materials as veils against reaching the divine. According to them, Fana involves three stages of practicality, characteristic, and the inherent nature and each stage has its own particular states, all of which are attainable by the grace of the divine and the wayfarer’s enthusiasm towards such an end. Nonetheless, there are no particular differences between the two figures regarding this subject. It can only be stated that Ibn Farid has been much more bold in Taeiyah Kubra compared to Imam Khomeini in his Divan, while Imam has also addressed the subject in question in his other works.
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