چیستی ذهنیت و تبیین ذهنیت غنایی در شعر نوجوان، مسئلۀ بنیادین این پژوهش است. نگارندگان با بر شمردن مؤلفه هایی برای ذهنیت غنایی بنیان نظری پژوهش را پی ریخته اند .این مؤلفه ها بر اساس نظریۀ محمد مختاری (1394) تشخیص داده شده و تبیین شده اند. بر مبنای این نظریه، ذهنیت غنایی شامل سه مؤلفۀ مشخص است: 1- تعمیم رابطۀ عاشقانه از معشوق – عاشق به شاعر – جهان، 2- تسرّی عرصه فردی به عشق فراگیر انسانی و 3- جریان یافتن سلوک عاشقانه در حوزۀ ارزش های والای بشری. پس از خوانش تمام مجموعه شعرهای بیوک ملکی در دَه قطعه شعر، مؤلفه های ذهنیت غنایی برجسته تر تشخیص داده شد؛ نگارندگان این دَه قطعه شعر را از این منظر تحلیل کرده اند. ضرورت انجام این پژوهش از دو جنبه احساس می شود؛ اول این که شعر نوجوان یک نوع نو پدید و نو پا در جریان شعر معاصر است و دوم این که این نوع از شعر را اغلب می توان با رویکرد های مخاطب محور مورد بررسی قرار داد و این پژوهش با اتخاذ نسبی این رویکرد سعی کرده است تا تأثیر عاطفی شعر را بر مخاطب نوجوان با توجه به ذهنیت غنایی حاکم بر آن نشان دهد. روش تحقیق به کار رفته در این مقاله از نوع تحلیلی و توصیفی با استفاده از ابزار کتابخانه ای است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Lyrical Subjectivity in Teenage Poetry (By reading and analyzing some poems by Buick Maleki)
The debate on subjectivity and objectivity in arts is one of the most enduring debates of all times. While objectivity is associated with the attributes of an object, subjectivity is based on the qualities within one’s mind, the perceptual subject. The latter is the trigger for the present study which is an attempt to locate both the development and expression of the lyrical elements in young adult poetry, where an identified perceptual subject (young adult) takes a good part. Subsequently, at the beginning of our debate what proceeds other issues is the problem of subjectivity in poetry. Next is the significance of lyrical subjectivity. Defining lyrical subjectivity, then, may be a laboring over the peculiarities and components of this kind of subjectivity that has already been expanded. Due to the fact that this study is within the realm of young adult poetry, lyric poetry in particular, which has to do with feelings and emotions, the functional impact of the components of lyrical subjectivity upon the poetical impression is another question that this study will endeavor to answer. Therefore, this study encompasses the lyric genre, the philosophy of poetry, aesthetics, reader-oriented approaches and the emotional impact of poetry, and the writers have used all these methods of thought to provide the aforementioned questions with appropriate answers. Answering the aforesaid questions by using reader-oriented criticism is one of the targets of the present study. Currently, working on young adult poetry as an extension of contemporary poetry not only assists the mainstream of the contemporary Persian poetry but also gives priority to reader-oriented approaches, for one thing, this genre picks out its readers. A practice to which little attention has been paid; for, as we know, inside the domain of Iranian literary studies rather different practices has always been carried out of which the most glorified one is the textual analysis. In the present study, then, we try to not only put the emphasis on the text but also on the reader-oriented approaches since here the readers are young adults. The reader-oriented approaches also provide this possibility to take poetry’s emotional impact into consideration, particularly the fact that the components of lyrical subjectivity tend toward feelings and interior thought.
2- Research methodology
This study has been brought about by using the analytical method vis-a-vis collecting data from library sources. The writers of this article have pondered on the words of the given title so as to elaborate on the conception of lyrical subjectivity as far as possible and analyze this idea along with discussing Biuk Maleki’s poems
The writers have compiled three components for the lyrical subjectivity by making use of “Seventy Years of Love Poetry,” an analytical work by Mohammad Mokhtari (2015):
1.The love affair is generalized from the lover-beloved to the poet-universe.
2.The individual is transferred to the all-encompassing human love.
3.The lover’s conduct moves toward the granted values of Man.” (Mokhtari, 2015:153)
Working amid this frame of reference and that of “Beauty in its original sense is essentially subjective.” (Lamarque, 2018:501), the writers of this study, then, present their aesthetic and reader-oriented reading of ten poems by Biuk Maleki (A poet who most often writes for young adults). These poems are selected out from among 133 poems and 9 poetry collections. Perhaps the writers have not been much impersonal in their selection, nevertheless, they have tried, first and foremost, to deliver a punctiliously exact reading by employing a critical view so as to make their reading intersubjective as far as possible. That being said, a view that takes every impact of the poetic object on the perceptual subject into consideration. Therefore, the process of selecting poems has been carried out by meticulously employing scientific standards of criticism and both the aesthetic and reader-oriented approaches. Consequently, we will see that in six poems poet’s conduct moves toward the granted values of Man and the poem acquires this potentiality to move life into an elevated state or, at least, by bringing the young adult reader into the forefront, elevates the soul and thought of the young adult and familiarizes him/her with human perfection and lyrical pleasure throughout his/her passing from innocence to experience, this menacing process of development. The poems include: The Spot from Again with the Rain, A New Way from Come and Take This Apple, You from Why Are You Stone-cold?, Pennyroyal Garden, and Like a Dream from Balloon Days and Fall from Late Night.The first component is granted residence in two poems (No.9 from The Scarecrow Was in Love and The Dream from Why Are You Stone-cold?) and the poet generalizes her affair from the beloved toward the universe. From this vantage point, one can argue that poetry, which is totally a subjective practice, “provides the possibility of a new way of understanding the world, beyond the sense and sensibility, that is not possible in any other way.” (Lamarque, 2018:453) The second component which we named as the transference of the individual to the all-encompassing human love is to be seen within one of the poems (No. 1 from The Scarecrow Was in Love). In this poem, once again the poet metaphorically generalizes the individualistic love of an object (the scarecrow) to the whole universe by utilizing creative imagery. Although the surrounding world doesn’t perceive this love, yet the very act of projection is interesting in itself. In one of the poems (Sad Feeling) both the second and third components are discovered and the writers have tried to study this poem along with the logic of these two components. Although this poem is too short it has so much to tell, especially when the reader is at the age of a young adult. Before proceeding to the main body of this study, there is one more important point to be mentioned. Because of the fact that young adult poetry collections most often do not have a page number (the same as the collections used for our point of reference), the writers had to cite both the title of the poem and the title of the collection inside the text while listing the publication information at the references part.
Objectivity, at the end of the day, is the tangible characteristics of an object, whereas subjectivity deals in the qualities within one’s mind. Lyrical subjectivity in poetry speaks of the pleasure and affection interwoven with poetry as an artistic production stemming from the mind and language of a perceptual subject, the poet, in an intersubjective relationship which at its other side resides the reader. Studying all Biuk Maleki’s poetry collections by maintaining a reader-oriented point of view, the writers of this article have concluded that lyrical subjectivity in young adult poetry corresponds to the three components which Mohammad Mokhtari (2015) has identified in his limited theory. They include:
1.The generalization of the love affair from the lover-beloved to the poet-universe.
2.The transference of the individual to the all-encompassing human love.
3.The movement of the lover's conduct toward the granted values of Man.
These components inhabit the selected poems in one way or the other. In five poems, the third component is diligently present. (These are: Spot, You, Pennyroyal Tea, Like a Dream and Fall.) In two poems, the first component is being spotted. (These are: No.9 from The Scarecrow Was in Love and The Dream from Why Are You Stone-cold?) In the first poem of The Scarecrow Was in Love and The New Way, the second component is totally observable. The Sad Feeling also contained both the second and three components
Abrams, M. H. & Harpham, G. G. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Saied Sabzian, Trans. Tehran: Rahnama, 2008
Ahmadi, Babak. Truth and Beauty. Tehran: Markaz.1992
Baraheni, Reza. The Beloved Is a Sweet Thing. Tehran: Veys, 1990
Brett, Raymond Laurence. Fancy and Imagination. Masoud Jafari, Trans. Tehran: Markaz, 2003.
Culler, Jonathan. The Pursuit of Signs. Leila Sadeghi and Tina Amrolahi. Tehran: Nashre Elm, 2001.
Daneshvar, Simin. Aesthetics. Tehran: Ghatreh, 2009.
Golshiri, Hooshang. Garden within a Garden. Tehran: Niloofar, 1999.
Immanuel Kant. Critique of Pure Reason. Abdolkarim Rashidian, Trans. Tehran: Ney, 1998.
Lamarque, Peter. The Philosophy of Literature. Meysam Mohammad Amini, Trans. Tehran: Farhang Nashre No. 2018.
Maleki, Biuk. Again with the Rain. Tehran: Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. 2006.
Maleki, Biuk.Come and Take This Apple. Tehran: Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. 2004.
Maleki, Biuk. The Scarecrow Was in Love. Tehran: Ofogh. 2010.
Maleki, Biuk. Why Are You Stone-cold?. Tehran: Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. 2015.
14.Maleki, Biuk. Balloon Days. Tehran: Morvarid, 2015.
15.Maleki, Biuk. Late Night. Tehran: Peydayesh, 2016.
Mohammad Beygi, Nahid. The Secret of Children and Young Adult Literature. Tehran: Sibarg, 2010.
Mokhtari, Mohammad. Seventy Years of Love Poetry. Mashhahd: Butimar,2015.
Moran, Berna. Literary Theories and Criticism. Naser Davaran, Trans. Tehran: Negah, 2017.
Parsa,Shamsi. Objectivity and Subjectivity in Nima’s Poetry. The Persian Language and Literature Magazine, Islamic Azad University, Fasa Branch. 2nd Year. No. 3. (Summer 2011). P.p. 31-50.
Pournamdarian, Taghi. My House Is Cloudy. Tehran: Soroush, 1998.
Rashidian, Abdolkarim. An Introduction to Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Tehran: Ney, 1998.
Richards, I. A. Principles of Literary Criticism. Saeid Hamidian, Trans. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi, 2016.
Russell, Bertrand. The Analysis of Mind. Manouchehr Bozohrrgmehr. Tehran: Kharazmi, 2013.
Sadighi, Ali Asghar. Fantasy in Shahnameh. Tehran: Bad, 2004.
Salajegheh, Parvin. From This Eastern Garden. Tehran: Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. 2009.
Shafiei Kadkani, Mohammad-Reza. Persian Verse of Constitutional to the Fall of the Monarchy. Tehran: Sokhan, 2001.
Skeleton, Robin. Poetic Pattern. Mehrangiz Ohedi, Trans. Tehran, Mitra, 1997.
Zarghani, Seyyed Mahdi. The History of Persian Literature and the Realm of Persian Language. Tehran: Sokhan, 2010.