عنوان مقاله [English]
Undoubtedly, the lyrical genre is the most widespread among literary genres. Some contemporary scholars have considered it to be the oldest literary genre and have divided it into several branches. One of the most important topics in the field of literary genres and perhaps the most important topic in the field of this type of genre is love. The purpose of this research is to study in a descriptive-analytical way, the motives of the love component in the Divan of Aref Qazvini and its various manifestations from the perspective of Aref. Out of a total of 229 poems that have been mentioned in the Divan of Aref Qazvini in various forms of ode, lyric, Masnavi, couplet, single verse and ballad, almost 106 are directly or indirectly dedicated to the component of love;That is about 46.28 percent of the total volume of the mystic court. Certainly, several motives have been effective in the application of this component in the mystic court. According to studies, the most important motivations of Aref Qazvini from the use of this component were patriotism, composition and love experiences, affection for friends and people, welcoming the love poems of other poets, lively life and political pressures.
So far, many contradictory judgments have been made about the poetry of the poets of the constitutional era. In most of these judgments, the poets of this era have been introduced as thematic and content-oriented poets; Poets who, rather than being bound by verbal and formal issues, have tried to be the children of the time and events of their time, and their use of images is the only tool to reflect the political issues in society.
Abolghasem Aref Qazvini is a poet who, while being influenced by the internal situation and the events around her, has depicted the situation of her life in the place of her divan. Undoubtedly, when the poet depicts the events of her personal life in her poems, her poetry becomes more emotional and has a greater impact on her audience. One of the common themes in Persian poetry is one of the oldest days of love and romance. In the constitutional period, this component is one of the common concepts of poetry of many poets. However, many analysts consider the poetry of the constitutional period to lack this theme. "The era of the constitutional revolution with love and the beloved is not very good; In other words, he does not have time for such thoughts and fantasies. ”(Mokhtari,1999: 58) However, this theme is one of the most common poetic themes of Aref Qazvini. Now we have to see what are the most important motives for the existence of this component in the court of the mystic. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important reasons for the motivation of the love component in the Divan of Aref Qazvini.
In this research, the descriptive-analytical method of Aref Qazvini's Divan has been studied from the perspective of the love component And the most important motives of Aref Qazvini from the application of this component have been studied and the frequency of each of these motives has been drawn in the form of a circular diagram.
Political and social issues are the focus of many poets of the constitutional era, including Aref Qazvini. However, the composition of political and patriotic compositions by Aref was in the direction of modern poetry; But "Aref should be considered as a traditional poet with political and social interests." (Zarghani, 2005:134)
This mystical view of the mystic evokes many of the components of his predecessors in his poems; But in addition to paying attention to Qadma's works, the events of his personal life are well reflected in his poems. Of course, many contemporary analysts have criticized Aref's poems for having some aberrations.
These extremist judgments have slightly reduced the status of the mystic poet compared to her contemporaries. Because the mystic is strongly influenced by inner feelings and emotions, This inevitably affects the structure and form of her poems and creates unwanted aberrations in the form and content of her verses And in the words of Shafi'i Kadkani, "it is the mystic's emotions and feelings that create the structure and form of his work, and he is by no means bound by the issues of the face." (Aref Qazvini, 2011:396)
Aref Diwan can be considered the peak of the evolution of the lyrical genre in the constitutional period. In defining this type of genre, "poems that express personal feelings and emotions." (Shamisa, 2004:133) In the lyrical genre, because the poet inadvertently expresses me as a person, the element of emotion is stronger and the poet's personality is best portrayed. That is why lyrical poetry has been considered "the most sincere type of poetry and a mirror of the real personality of the poet" (Pournamdarian, 2005:53).
Undoubtedly, the most important component in the field of lyrical literature is the component of love. This component has always been a constant in the poetry of most poets and has undergone less change and transformation. "Romantic feelings and sexual emotions are almost the same in the main fields all over the world and in all periods, and they change and change later" (Mo'tman, 1992:399) But love and affection in the poetry of every poet in addition to the poetic tradition has been for special reasons and in the poetry of Aref Qazvini is also subject to the same rule And there are several motives for the existence of this component in her divan, which we will talk about in the following article.
The tumultuous period of the constitutional era affected all aspects of people's lives. The poets of this era, who arose from the same people, reflected many of these political currents in their poems. In the meantime, Aref Qazvini became famous as a national poet due to the spread of patriotic ideas and love for the homeland; But this feature in her poems has not caused her love to be limited to the homeland and the land. The study shows that more than a third of the titles of her poems are directly dedicated to the component of love, and in her other titles and poems, this feature is indirectly present So that out of 229 titles of poems that have been composed in the Divan of Aref Qazvini in various formats of lyric, ode, Masnavi, ballad, two-bit and quatrain, Approximately 106 cases (46%) directly or indirectly contain the component of love. Undoubtedly, the existence of this component in the court of the mystic has been with special motives; Studies show that a total of about 30% (32 out of 106) of Aref's love poems have been written with the motive of love for the homeland; The desire to compose and sing, which from the time of adolescence, opens the mystic's foot to the realm of love and causes her to compose many lyric poems and ballads addressed to her mistresses About 27% (28 out of 106) of her romances; Aref's popularity among the people causes her to recite poems addressed to them in such a way that about 17% (18 out of 106 cases) of the love component in Aref's Divan are motivated by Aref's love and affection for friends and people. Wherever Aref found love poetry wherever she found it, 10% (11 out of 106) of the love component in Aref's Divan was due to the influence of other poets' love poems. Aref's hectic life causes that in many cases the theme of love is her only means of getting rid of problems, about 9% (10 out of 106 cases) of the love component in Aref's Divan is due to her turbulent life. Rezakhani's tyranny was followed by numerous political pressures, and Aref Qazvini, who was unable to resist it, turned to the sidelines; The theme of love was one of the pillars that could relieve him; 7% (7 out of 106 cases) of the love component in Aref's court were due to political pressures.Therefore, only about 30% of the mystical love poems are written with the motive of love for the homeland and the rest have other reasons and motives; Accordingly, considering Aref Qazvini a "national poet" is not without negligence and may cause her to neglect other aspects of her thought and art. The following is a frequency chart of love reflection motives in Aref Qazvini's Divan:
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