بررسی مقایسه‌ای افسانة کُهزاد و بَسی با زال و رودابه‌ در شاهنامة فردوسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه جهرم. جهرم.ایران

چکیده

داستان­های عاشقانه­ای مانند لیلی و مجنون، خسرو و شیرین، زال و رودابه و... بخشی غنی از ادبیات عاشقانه و غنایی این مرز و بوم را تشکیل می­دهد. افزون بر این روایات مکتوب، گاه روایت عشق­هایی جانسوز در میان عامة مردم رواج دارد که کمتر مجال طرح و بررسی یافته­اند. یکی از این روایت­ها، روایتی است که علی حسین عالی­نژاد، نقّال 73 ساله و اهل روستای رمقانِ استان فارس نقل می­کند. نگارنده کوشیده است نخست به روش میدانی این افسانه را ثبت کند و سپس به روش کتابخانه­ای و تحلیل محتوا، به بررسی مقایسه­ای آن با روایت فردوسی بپردازد. پرسش اساسی این پژوهش این است که تفاوت­ها و شباهت­های روایت مکتوب و شفاهی در چه    بخش­هایی است و این دگرگونی­ها حاصل چیست؟ یافته­های پژوهش نشان می­دهد افسانة عامیانه از دو بخش کاملاً مجزا تشکیل شده است: بخش نخست جز در برخی از جزییات بسیار شبیه به داستان زال و رودابه است؛ اما بخش دوم داستان، یک­باره دگرگون می­شود و خواننده با نمایشی کاملاً متفاوت روبه­رو می­شود. دربارة این روایت عامیانه، به طور کلی دو فرضیه را می­توان طرح کرد: 1- افسانة عامیانه، تقلید و آمیزشی از روایت زال و رودابه و داستان­های عاشقانه باشد که ذهن راوی و نقّال ساخته و پرداخته است.2- نقّالان و راویان با آمیزش داستان عاشقانة رایجی در میان مردم با داستان شاهنامه و دیگر روایت­ها، داستانی نو بنیاد نهاده­اند. به هر روی این روایت از جنبه­های گوناگون مانند مکان داستان، شخصیت­ها، فضا، برخی از رخدادهای داستانی، فرجام داستان و... با روایت شاهنامة فردوسی تفاوت­هایی دارد؛ اما در مجموع یکسانی­های زیادی با روایت شاهنامه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparison of the Legend of Kohzad and Basi with Zal and Rudabeh in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh

نویسنده [English]

  • azim jabbareh naserou
Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

    Love stories such as Lily and Majnoon, Khosrow and Shirin, Zal and Rudabeh, etc. are a rich part of the love and lyrical literature of this region. In addition to these written narrations, sometimes the narration of passionate loves is common among the general public, which has been less studied. One of these narrations is a narration narrated by Ali Hossein Alinejad, a 73-year-old narrator from the village of Romqan in Fars province. The author has tried to record this myth first in the field method and then to compare it with Ferdowsi's narrative through library method and content analysis. The main question of this research is what are the differences and similarities between written and oral narration and what are the results of these changes? The findings of the research show that the folk legend is composed of two completely separate parts: the first part is very similar to the story of Zal and Rudabeh except in some details; But the second part of the story suddenly changes and the reader is confronted with a completely different show. Regarding this folklore narration, in general, two hypotheses can be proposed: 1- Folk myth is an imitation and intercourse of Zal and Rudabeh narratives and love stories that have been made and narrated by the narrator and narrator. 2- Narrators and The narrators have established a new story by mixing a common love story among the people with the story of Shahnameh and other narrations. However, this narration differs from the narration of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh in various aspects such as the place of the story, characters, space, some narrative events, the end of the story, etc .; But in general, it has many similarities with the Shahnameh narration.
 

Introduction

    Folklore literature is a rich part of any nation's literature, which inadvertently destroys part of that nation's literary and cultural treasure. One of these legends that is subject to oblivion and destruction is the story of Kohzad and Basi, which only two of the elders of the region remember this story almost completely. The author first carefully records the two narrations and then cites the most complete narration - the narration of Ali Hossein Alinejad. Another narration is narrated by "Khavar Qeshang", the oldest narrator in this region, which has three fundamental differences in comparison with the narration of Ali Hossein Alinejad: 1- In the narration of Khavar Qeshang, Kohzad's mother, after the year The secret and the need to get pregnant by eating pomegranate seeds. In the narration of the great race, there is no mention of how Pridakht became pregnant. 2- In the narration of the beautiful East, the part of Basi's exile to China and Machin and Kohzad's father dreaming has been removed. 3- In the narration of the beautiful East, Kohzad has been in support of Parizadi for days, who appears in Kahzad's staff and is always his supporter and companion. In the narration of Ali Nejad, there is no mention of a cow and her companion with a hero. Due to the fact that the people of the Red Mountain region are farmers and ranchers, cattle have played a very important role in the daily life of the people; This has given the cow a totemic position. The people of this region do not eat beef, if a cow dies, they mourn for it and bury its bones. The cow has two main roles in the narratives of the people of the region: the cause of birth and the supporter of the protagonist. Apart from the three mentioned differences, there is no other difference between the two narrations; Therefore, due to the more complete narration of the great race, the author has recorded and transmitted his narration.
2- Research method
   The author first records oral narrations in a field method and then comparatively examines the differences and similarities between Shahnameh narrations and oral narrations.
3- Discussion
   To understand the differences and similarities between the two narratives, the axes of the story are examined comparatively in the following five sections:
1-3- Birth of Kohzad / Zal
   In this section, a few points can be said: a) - In the folklore, the name of Kohzad's father is not known and his mother's name is Pridakht Parizad. According to Shahnameh, the name of Zal's father is Sam Pahlavan and his mother's name is not known. B) - In folklore, the reason for naming a hero is his birth in the mountains. In the Shahnameh narration, although it is not clear exactly who chooses the name Zal, but it seems that, considering the meaning of his name, which means getting old, the reason for choosing this name was his hair color. C) - In the narration of Shahnameh, the birth of a boy with white hair is not predicted. D) - In folklore, there is talk of a connection between the mother's mother and the fairies. However, this is not the case in the Shahnameh narration. In folklore, Kohzad's birth is predicted by fairies and Kohzad's mother is aware of the child's white hair; But in the narration of Shahnameh, the birth of Zal is not predicted. E) In the folklore, the whiteness of Kohzad's hair is the result of his father's sin. In the narration of Shahnameh, there is no mention of Sam's sin, but seeing Sam, it seems that he considers the birth of such a child as the result of a great sin. F) - In both narrations, Simorgh is the guardian and breeder of Zal. H) - The last scene of this part in the oral narration is the anger of Kohzad's father against Pridakht and Soroush's middle father (the second presence in the story), which does not exist in the Shahnameh narration. I) The story of Kohzad's birth is not unlike the story of the birth of Jesus (pbuh).
2-3-Kohzad's father dreamed and Kohzad returned home

A) - In the narration, Kohzad is related to the Onalkhas (goblins, demons) and learns magic from them. In the narration of Shahnameh, Zal does not explicitly learn magic; But in different parts of Shahnameh, his magic is mentioned. B) - In both narrations, the stimulus to bring the child back is sleep. C) - In this part of the story, Simorgh has almost the same function in both narratives. D) - According to the narration, Kohzad's father reaches the mountain at dawn and in the dark of night, he witnesses the happy ceremony of the Onalkhas. In the narration of Shahnameh, there is no mention of saddles.
E) In the Shahnameh narration, when Manouchehr learns of Zal's return, he sends Nozar to Zabul to summon Sam to the court. In the narration, there is no mention of Manouchehr and Kohzad meeting with him, and on the other hand, Kohzad's father goes to China and Machin by the king's order and with the song of battle. According to Shahnameh, after Manouchehr's visit, Sam goes to Gargsaran and Mazandaran to fight.

3-3- Familiarity with Kohzad and Basi
   The meeting of Kohzad and the king is very similar to the meeting of Mehrab and Zal.
4-3- Awareness of the stepmother is enough
     This part of the story is the beginning of the separation of the two narratives. The following points should be said about this section: A) - In the Shahnameh narration, unlike the oral narration, Rudabeh's mother is a very wise and skillful woman. B) - In both narrations, Sindakht and stepmother find out the story between the lover and the beloved through the interrogation of the messenger maid. C) - In the oral tradition, the stepmother succeeds in convincing Basi's father to send him to a distant land.
5-3- Exile of Basi to China and Machin and the end of the story
   In this part of the story, a few points can be said: a) - Susan in the narrative is not only a messenger, but also familiar with magic and Kohzad with his spell that can enter the city. Susan, on the other hand, acts as a guide for Kohzad to get through the difficult stages of entering the city. B) - In this narration, like some epic narrations, the hero has to break the spell. C) - The end of this romantic epic narrative does not lead to a carpenter. D) - At the end of the narration, Kohzad is imprisoned in a cage and dies there as a result of torture.
4- Conclusion
    A comparative study of the myth of Kohzad and Basi with Zal and Rudabeh in Shahnameh shows the following: 1- Folk myth has two distinct parts: the first part of the narrative - from the beginning of the story to the arrival of the stepmother - except in some details of the story, It is very similar to the narration of Shahnameh; But in the second part - from the arrival of the stepmother to the end - we are faced with a completely different story; In a way that it bears almost no resemblance to the story of Zal and Rudabeh. From the beginning of the story, the reader is confronted with a romantic-epic narrative; Therefore, the subconscious expects the story to have a good and happy ending, and the lover and the beloved to come together; But it ends with the kind of mythical love that separates the lover and the beloved and puts them together. 2- Considering the age of the narrator and his claim that he heard this narration from his grandfather, it seems that this myth has been common among the people for a long time and has undergone a change over time. Part of this transformation, such as the colorful presence of the unseen Soroush in the course of the story, is the connection of the character of the story with the Onalks, the result of the efforts of the narrators and narrators to localize the narrative; But the main part of this transformation, which is the second part of the story, is not provable how and when it happened. Two hypotheses can be made about the reasons for these differences: A) - The main story was about two real characters - Kohzad and Basi - which has been gradually mixed with the narration of Zal and Rudabeh. B) - The whole story was born of the minds and imaginations of narrators and narrators. 3- Three points are worth mentioning about the characters of the story: A) - Some characters have been added to the story such as Soroushi Ghaybi; Some, such as Manouchehr, Mobadan, Nozar, etc., have been removed. B) - Most of the characters in the story, such as Bessie's mother, play different roles with their counterparts in Shahnameh. C) - In the narration, Kohzad's father - his name is not known - is clearly guilty and the whiteness of Kohzad's hair is the result of his sin; However, there is no mention of his sin. Kohzad's mother - Parizad Parizad - is also a fairy and is related to them. Kohzad also learns magic from the Onalks. D) - Susan is one of the characters added to the folklore that has a very important role in the story. In addition to mediating between the lover and the beloved, he is also Kohzad's guide to go through the five difficult stages of reaching the basi. 4- In the narration of Shahnameh, there is no mention of Zal passing through several khans; However, in the popular narration, the hero goes through five khans: boar, lion, dragon, wizard and demon. Of course, there is no word on how the hero went through these stages. 5- Places are not clear in the folklore. The only places mentioned are China and Machin. 6- The atmosphere of the folk tale is magical and magical. Most of the characters in the story are related to magic.
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kohzad and Basi folk legend
  • Zal and Rudabeh story
  • similarities and differences
 
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32- لسترنج، گی، 1364، جغرافیای تاریخی سرزمین خلافت شرقی. ترجمة محمود عرفان. تهران: علمی و فرهنگی.
33- مارزلف، اولریش، 1371، طبقه­بندی قصه­های ایرانی، ترجمة کیکاووس جهانداری، تهران: سروش.
34- مختاری غزنوی، عثمان بن عمر، 1377، شهریارنامه، به کوشش غلامحسین بیگدلی، تهران: پیک فرهنگ.
35- محبتی، مهدی، 1379، سیمرغ در جستجوی قاف، تهران: سخن.
36- مستوفی، حمدالله، 1336، نزهه القلوب. تهران: طهوری.
37- مستوفی، عبدالله، 1381، تاریخ گزیده، تصحیح عبدالحسین نوایی، تهران: امیرکبیر.
 
 
38- مک کال، هنریتا، 1379، اسطوره­های بین­النهرینی. ترجمة عباس مخبر، تهران: مرکز.
39- مهرآبادی، میترا، 1379، شاهنامه فردوسی به نثر پارسی سره، تهران، روزگار.
40- میرخواند، 1338، روضه الصفا، تهران: خیام.
41- ویسپرد، 1381، به کوشش ابراهیم پورداوود، تهران: اساطیر.
 42- هفت لشکر، 1377، به تصحیح مهران افشاری و مهدی مداینی، تهران: پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی.
43- یسنا، 377، به کوشش ابراهیم پورداوود، تهران: اساطیر.
44- یشت­ها، 1377، به کوشش ابراهیم پورداوود، تهران: اساطیر.