بررسی تقابل قدرت و عشق در منظومه خسرو و شیرین نظامی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه یزد. یزد. ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه یزد. یزد. ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه یزد. یزد. ایران.

چکیده

تقابل‌های دوگانه یکی از مباحث مورد توجه ساختارگرایان است. آن‌ها بنیاد هستی و شناخت آن را درک همین تقابل‌ها می‌دانند. اغلب آثار هنری بر مبنای تقابل شکل گرفته است؛ بد در برابر خوب، آسمان در برابر زمین، جوانی در برابر پیری، وجود در برابر عدم و... این دو قطب هرگز به گونه‌ای مستقل وجود نداشته‌اند و استوار بر تضاد دو قطب است. این مقاله بر آن است تا با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با توجه به تلفیق دیدگاه ساختارگرایان به پاسخ این پرسش برسد که شکل‌گیری دو تقابل قدرت و عشق در داستان «خسرو و شیرین» چگونه است؟ نتایج تحقیق گویای این است که هر کدام از رمزگان قدرت و عشق در داستان خسرو و شیرین واژگان متناسب خود را بر روی محور همنشینی طلب می‌کنند. داستان با تعادل رمزگان قدرت و نشانه‌های آن شروع می‌شود، اما با شکل‌گیری رمزگان عشق هر کدام از این دو رمزگان برای تحکیم نظام نشانه‌ای خود تلاش می‌کند و به طرد رمزگان متقابل می‌پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the binary opposition between love and power in Nezami’s Khosrow and

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Najjarian 1
  • fatemeh esfandiyari mehni 2
  • mohammad khodadadi 3
1 Professor of persion language and literature department, faculty member, university of Yazd, Yazd, Iran
2 phd. Student of persion language and literature department , university of Yazd,Yazd, Iran
3 Associate professor of Educational Department, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
One of the topics of interest to structuralists is  paying attention to binary opposition. They know the foundation of existence and its cognition as the realization of these oppositions . Most of artworks are based on contrast and opposition; Bad versus good, heaven versus earth, youth versus aging, existence versus non-existence, etc. These two poles have never existed independently and are based on the opposition of two poles. This article intends to answer the question of how the two oppositions of power and love are formed in the story of "Khosrow and Shirin" by using descriptive-analytical method and also considering the combination of structuralists’ views. The results of the research show that each of the codes of power and love in the story of Khosrow and Shirin seeks their appropriate words on the axis of syntagmatic. The story begins with the balance of the codes of power and its signs, but by the formation of the codes of love, each of these codes attempts to strengthen its system of signs and rejects the codes of opposition.
 
 

Introduction

      Structuralists   base  their  studies  in  each  field  on  binary  opposition.  The   foundation  of Western philosophical-scientific thought has always been based on bipolar elements. Evil versus good, absence versus presence, body versus soul, nothingness versus existence, death versus life, etc. These two poles have never existed independently and are based on the opposition of two poles and are always in the hierarchy. They have something that is superior to the other. This belief in duality has led to the practical establishment of the base, and has ultimately considered presence to be superior to distinction and absence. Saussure saw language as something which is based on binary opposition. Saussure's views on the distinction and contrast between speech and language, between signifier and signified, between temporal and synchronic studies, and the axis of paradigmatic and syntagmatic are one of the main intellectual and theoretical origins of the structuralists approach.                  
 According to Levi-Strauss, these binary oppositions form the cultural foundation, and our cultural actions derive from these oppositions.   Poststructuralists believe that texts are made up of a set of contrasts that serve the structure and help to consolidate it. In binary oppositions we do not find only a oppositional relationship between the two components in question, but there is a wonderful partnership between them, and this oppositional relationship may lead to their perfection and coherence. Foucault, a contemporary French philosopher and thinker, discussed the knowledge in the light of the functions of power. Foucault writes in Order and Punishment: The power produces knowledge. Power and knowledge are directly related. There is no relation of power without the establishment of a domain dependent on knowledge, and no knowledge can be realized without the assumption and formation of relations of power at the same time. In Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami , the power is something which is accepted and the king rules as a person who is the shadow of God and to oppose his orders is a religious sin. In this system, the king moves by institutionalizing his own beliefs and ideas in line with his goals of being at the helm of power.

Research Method

     The present study is entitled the Study of the opposition of Power and Love in  Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami Ganjavi poetry. In this research the two elements of power and love have been studied and analyzed by using descriptive-analytical method and library resources.

Discussion

     Binary oppositions are one of the most central themes in military works that can be examined in three areas of contrast, paradox, and systems analysis based on a combination of structuralism and semiotic perspectives. At the beginning of Khosrow and Shirin's poetry, we are faced with the balance and dominance of the codes of power. The king, science and consciousness, wisdom, warrior, eloquence and artistry are the hallmarks of the codes of power, and these characteristics confirm Foucault's theory of power-knowledge. Since dominating codes of power all elements  are moving toward stabilizing and dominating these codes. Characters such as Mahin Banoo and Shirin, as well as language, tone and words, evoke their meaning according to these codes. In contrast to the codes of power, there are the codes of love. The verses that describe Mahin Banoo and Shirin in the language of Shapur, and then the act of painting and meeting and Khosrow and Shirin falling in love with each other, cause the codes of love to be formed within the codes of power and then to oppose the codes of power. In the codes of love, both the characters and the language find new functions and meanings that is in contrast with the language of the codes of power. Language and vocabulary take on an iconic form and enter the emotional context and atmosphere, and the word takes on the form of literature. Most works of art are based on the contrast of victory and defeat, death and immortality, old age and youth, sorrow and joy, intellect and love, body and soul, earth and sky, existence and non-existence, and so on. This research seeks to answer the question of how is the formation of the two semantic oppositions of power and love in Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami? The purpose of this study is to investigate the opposition of power and love in Khosrow and Shirin based on oppositional perspectives. The lack of a case study on the opposition between love and power in Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami highlights the need for such a study.
 

Conclusion

         Khosrow and Shirin of Nezami is a narrative whose signs are organized according to Pierce's view under two internal and reciprocal codes of power and love. As the text tends towards the codes of power, the signs become symbolic, and when the codes of love are highlighted, the signs become iconic. Each of the codes of power and love seeks appropriate words on the axis of paradigmatic. The constant tension between the codes of power and love eventually leads to the disappearance and failure of the codes of power, but the codes of love, of which Khosrow, Shirin and Farhad are the main actors, are not established and the final progress is made by breaking both codes. Farhad dies in the path of love. Khosrow and Shirin rise from power and turn to the world of love, but Shirviyeh's action causes failure in the codes of love and Khosrow and Shirin both die in the path of love.

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Khosrow and Shirin
  • power
  • love
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