بررسی نیاز عشق در شخصیّت رودابه و منیژه براساس نظریة روان‌شناختی مزلو

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران.

2 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

      شاهنامه اثری است که شخصیّت‌ها با توجّه به کارکردشان در آن حضور می‌یابند. بخش‌هایی از این کتاب به مفاهیم غنایی از جمله عشق اختصاص دارد که پرجاذبه‌ترین مفهوم است. این مقوله موضوع مشترک داستان‌های غنایی با نیازهای مطرح‌شده در نظریة روان‌شناختی مزلو است. از نظر مزلو عشق می‌تواند رشد شخصیّت شود. در عاشقانه‌هایی که در شاهنامه روایت می‌شود، زنان نقش مؤثّری در پیشبرد روایت عاشقی دارند. در این پژوهش کوشیده شده ‌است، مفهوم عشق در کنش رودابه و منیژه از دلدادگان شاهنامه بر اساس این نظریه، مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. اینکه رودابه و منیژه در بررسی با الگوی مزلو در عشق چه جلوه وشخصیّتی پیدا می‌کنند، پرسش اصلی این پژوهش است. عشق رودابه عشقی متعالی و کمال‌گراست و زیبایی جسمانی و معنوی را توأمان در نظر دارد و به واسطة آن، به مؤلّفه‌هایی ‌از جمله خودانگیختگی، فرهنگ‌ناپذیری و درک روشن از واقعیات متّصف می‌شود. عشق منیژه، ابتدا بر پایة زیبایی‌های ظاهری شکل می‌گیرد و در ادامه با تحوّل بنیادین در شخصیّت او به مراتبی فراتر در عشق می‌رسد. روش این پژوهش مقایسه‌ای تحلیلی است و نیاز عشق در هرم مزلو و خویش کاری‌های رودابه و منیژه و شاخص‌های رفتاری این دو در این زمینه مورد تحلیل و مقایسه قرار گرفته‌اند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rudabeh and Manijeh's character analysis based on the need for love in Abraham Maslow's pyramid model

نویسندگان [English]

  • fakhri zarei 1
  • kazem mousavi 2
  • ali mohammadi asiabadi 3
1 PhD. Student of Persian Language and Literature Department, University of Sharekord, Shahrekord.Iran
2 professor of Persian Language and Literature Department University of Sharekord, Shahrekord.Iran
3 Associate professor of Persian Language and Literature Department, University of Sharekord, Shahrekord.Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
      Shahnameh is an work in which the characters appear according to their function. Among the uproar of battles and the narration of the heroism of the heroes, there are sections dedicated to lyrical concepts, among which, love is the most attractive concept. This is a common theme of lyrical stories with the needs of the psychological theory of Maslow. According to Maslow, love can cause the growth of personality. In the romances narrated in Shahnameh, women have an effective role in promoting the narration of love. In this research, an attempt has been made to analyze the concept of love in the actions of Rudabeh and Manijeh, lovers of Shahnameh, based on this theory. Rudabeh’s love is transcendent and perfectionist love and considers both physical and spiritual beauty. Love leads her to self-actualization, and through it, she is characterized by the components such as spontaneity and simplicity, unculturedness, and a clear understanding of reality. Manijeh's love, which is initially formed on the basis of physical and spiritual beauty, but then goes beyond the level of animal interests with a fundamental change in his personality. By comparing the two, Rudabeh's love is more sublime and growing and causes Rudabeh's self-construction. While examining Manijeh's personality in two stages of her life, it shows two different dimensions of love and depicts the evolution of his personality. She enters into a superficial relationship in the first stage, but later, this love takes a more serious form and leads to her personality development. Rudabeh and Manijeh are both anti-traditional and uncultured and act autonomously according to the circumstances.
Introduction
In Shahnameh, characters appear according to their function. Parts of this book are devoted to lyrical concepts, including love, which is the most influential concept. This category is a common theme of lyrical stories with the needs of Maslow's psychological theory. According to Maslow, love can pave the way for self-actualization and cause the growth of personality. In Shahnameh romances, women have an effective role in promoting the narration of love. In this research, an attempt has been made to analyze the concept of love in the behavior and actions of Rudabeh and Manijeh based on this theory. The main question of this research is what kind of character Rudabeh and Manijeh find in love in the study with Maslow's model. Recognizing the personality of Rudabeh and Manizheh in Shahnameh based on Maslow's pyramid, examining their position based on the degree of dominance of a need and a deeper understanding of the personality of these two women in love is one of the objectives of this study. This study focuses on the love of the needs of the Maslow pyramid, by comparison, analyzes the personality traits of each and explains the reasons for the superiority of one over the other.

Research Method

The present study is an analytical comparison. In this study, the need for love is the basis of work and an attempt has been made to carefully analyze and compare the need for love in these two personalities and the findings with the behavior and thoughts of Rudabeh and Manijeh. Maslow's theories have been used in this research through library tools.

Discussion

To recognize the need for love in Rudabeh's personality, one must pay attention to the physical needs and security that were provided before the need for love. Physical needs are met in Rudabeh. The physical aspect of his love for Zal goes back to his sexual instincts, which are part of her physical needs. Rudabeh’s love is a perfect love. It is not a purely spiritualistic love. He considers both sides. On the one hand, it pays attention to the physical dimension and power of Zal, which, of course, is less important than the metamaterial dimension of love, and on the other hand, she considers the spiritual dimension of love. Manizheh experiences two different periods in her life from other women in Shahnameh. Her love for Bijan begins with a visual emotional connection. Manijeh is initially involved in superficial interests. "One of the most well-known characteristics of love is that a person tends to get closer to the person she loves and to have a more intimate relationship and to be eager for him" (Maslow, 1988: 250). This tendency is seen in Manizheh's first meeting with Bijan.The need for security is another need and includes physical security and mental-psychological security. Physically, this need is met in both personalities due to their position. Rudabeh's mental security depends on the existence of Sindokht and her care.Manijeh security is not provided due to lack of support. Her haste in getting to know Bijan, her hasty decision to bring him to the palace, and the length of her meetings with Bijan are the result of his mental turmoil. After reaching true love, Manijeh renounces safety and love becomes a priority for her.Rudabeh's view of love is a meta-physical view. Being white-head (albinism), being the cultered by Simorgh, and not being loved with father are some of Zal's disadvantages, but it is not fundamental for Rudabeh. Rudabeh's criterion in this personal love is completely humanistic. From Rudabeh's point of view, in choosing love, the innate nature of the person is important, and what distinguishes her transcendent love from superficial loves is giving importance to the character of Zal. Rudabeh promotes oneness and considers love as its complement. Love evolves. "In love, the 'I' expands to the point where it covers two persons, and the two persons become, to some extent, a single soul, a single person, and a single 'I' for psychological purposes" (Maslow, 1988: 263). She is a logician. Art is the most important criterion for choosing his love. This is a descriptive attitude; What matters is the character of the individual. She considers love to be the complement of individuality, and strengthens his character by this choice, while being separate. These two, that is, the purification from individuality and the complete unification of the "I", are the accumulation of contradictions, and the person evolves with love while preserving individuality (see Maslow, 1988: 271). Rudabeh's realism is the source of truth-seeking. She is pragmatic in love. It acts with the help of the power of love. "The intellect may be the guide of man, but the force necessary for action does not arise from the intellect. This power must be obtained from emotions” (Rahimi, 1997: 246). Rudabeh is not passive. Despite all the limitations, she fights to achieve the goal. According to Maslow, love is of two types; Selfish love based on satisfying selfish needs. He called this love D love. Another type is called B, which is non-possessive (see Darabi, 2005: 106). Rudabeh love is of the second type and has a meaning beyond sexual matters. In the path of self-actualization, "one does not make any definite distinction between the roles and personalities of the opposite sex" (Maslow, 1988: 259).
Taking the lead in dating, inviting Zal to the palace, is a traditional and heretical behavior that shows that gender restrictions cannot limit her. This is while Manijeh's love at the beginning of acquaintance and in comparison with Rudabeh is of love type D; The love that comes from a lack of kindness. Manijeh’s love is formed in two stages; Decision stage and commitment stage; The decision to love another person that happens in the short term and in which there is no need to continue the relationship and a commitment to maintain this love in the long run. Therefore, the two stages of Manijeh love are the objective form of love according to some experts (see Rice, 2013: 532). Manijeh's recklessness ignores moral boundaries. Prior to her capture, her inclination toward Bijan was biological and instinctive, and her longing for solitude was a sign of her self-centeredness. With more knowledge, love will find a deeper meaning for her. Although Manijeh is not at the top of the Maslow pyramid, she achieves inner cohesion in love. "Love causes inner cohesion and harmonizes self-awareness and unconsciousness" (Allandi, 1378: 9). In this way, his point of excellence can be seen in love. Due to the deep relationship between Zal and Rudabeh, Rudabeh's love is more perfectionist. Rudabeh enjoys both motherly support and romantic love from Zal; "Those whose needs of belonging have been sufficiently satisfied from the earliest years are not intimidated when they are deprived of love, and they are assured that they will be accepted by those who are important to them" (Fist and Fist, 2012: 594). Rudabeh does not get anxious with her father's anger. She achieves self-actualization through love. In contrast to her, the relationship between Manijeh and Bijan is at the beginning of a one-way relationship, and an emotional relationship is established between the two for the purpose of pleasure.

Conclusion

Maslow's theory is one of the theories in which man and his abilities are the focus of attention and the need for love can create a suitable platform for one's prosperity. Rudabeh and Manijeh are on a path of ups and downs in the path of love, and by analyzing their personality, it can be seen that receiving Rudabeh's auditory love shows that this character has a high goal in love. In contrast, Manijeh is on another level of love. At first, she approaches Bijan to meet her emotional needs, but after some events, love changes her personality and she is on the path of growth. Rudabeh’s love is more transcendent. Rudabeh and Manijeh are both anti-traditional and uncultured, but their methods are different. Rudabeh's logic and tactics attract the support of the mother and she is respected after her connection with Zal. Manijeh, on the other hand, is driven out of the court by reckless rebellion and inevitably chooses a difficult path to grow.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Shahnameh
  • Rudabeh
  • Manijeh
  • Maslow
  • love
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