فرایند ارتباطات غیرکلامی در مراثی خاقانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد بناب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بناب، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بناب، بناب، ایران

3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بناب، بناب، ایران.

چکیده

مراثی خاقانی از تشخّص منحصربه‌فردی در گونۀ مرثیه‌سرایی ادب فارسی برخوردار است؛ این مراثی سرشار از زبان تصویری و کنش‌های تعاملی گوناگونی با مخاطب است که بر لحن غنایی و جنبۀ اثرگذاری شعر افزوده است. سهم بسیاری از غنا در مرثیه‌های خاقانی، برخاسته از فرایند ارتباطات غیرکلامی است که با توانمندی‌های هنری و کلامی خاقانی در بافت این شعر القاء شده است؛ مسالۀ اصلی تحقیق حاضر، بررسی انواع ارتباطات غیرکلامی موجود در مرثیه‌های خاقانی و تحلیل زیرساخت‌های اَشکال این ارتباطات در عاطفی‌تر شدن مراثی خاقانی بوده است. برای انجام این پژوهش از روش تحقیق توصیفی و استدلالی استفاده‌شده است؛ جامعۀ آماری این تحقیق، اشعار رثایی خاقانی بوده است و از انجام آن، این نتایج به دست آمد: فرایندهای ارتباطی غیرکلامی در مراثی خاقانی در شاخه‌های اصلی اندامی (27%)، محیطی (%23)، چهره (20%)، حرکتی (18%) و موسیقایی (12%) و اغلب متأثر از باورهای عامیانه و فرهنگی و اسطوره‌ای، سنت‌های ادبی و نیز نیازهای روحی و روانی انسان است. پیوند بین ارتباطات غیرکلامی با متن شعر به روش‌های تأکید (50%)، تکمیل (30%) و جایگزینی (20%) صورت گرفته است که موجب تقویت بار عاطفی، جانداری تصاویر شعری، تازگی و پویایی زبانی و نیز تأکید و تشخّص لحن غنایی مرثیه‌های خاقانی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The process of non-verbal communication in Khaghani’s elegies

نویسندگان [English]

  • jamshid daszarrin 1
  • Narges Oskouie 2
  • hoseyn dadashi 3
1 Ph.D student of Persian Language and Literature Department,Islamic Azad University, Bonab Branch, Bonab, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature Department, Islamic Azad University, Bonab Branch, Bonab, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature Department, Islamic Azad University, Bonab Branch, Bonab, Iran
چکیده [English]

Khaghani’s elegies have a unique place in the genre of elegies of Persian literature; Such elegies are full of visual language and various interactive actions with the audience and have added to the lyrical tone and the influential aspect of the poem. A great share of lyrics in Khaghani's elegies stem from the process of nonverbal communication which has been induced by Khaghani's artistic and verbal abilities in the context of this poem; The present study aimed to examine the types of non-verbal communication in Khaghani's elegies and analyze the infrastructures of the types of these communications in making Khaghani's elegies more emotional. In order to conduct this study, descriptive and argumentative research methods were used;  The statistical population of this study included Khaghani's elegies and the following results were obtained: Non-verbal communication processes in Khaghani's elegiesin the main branches of body (27%), environmental (23%), face (20%), movement (18%) and music (12%) and are often influenced by popular and cultural beliefs and myths, literary traditions, as well as the spiritual and psychological needs of human. The relationship between non-verbal communication and the text of the poem text was conducted by the methods of emphasis (50%), completion (30%) and substitution (20%), which strengthened the emotional load, animism of poetic images, linguistic dynamics and novelty, as well as emphasis and recognition of lyrical tone in Khaghani's elegies.
 1-Introduction
     Elegies are among the richest scenes in the expression of rebellious and burning human emotions; In this self-expression space, the poet applies every element to psychologize the flow of emotions in the poetic context and give life to the fire within him in the body of words; Such implications, while explicit and eloquent in their language, are full of hidden and symbolic signs in their infrastructure, carrying deep psychological and archetypal meanings and deep connections with historical, cultural and social continuities. A significant part of the lyrical and emotional burden of inheritance is considered by meta-linguistic elements and non-verbal communication; In literature, verbal and non-verbal communication overlap and are presented together. Human can voluntarily cut off the verbal communication, but cannot prevent body language communication. Sometimes, small or large movements, gestures, facial expressions or the whole body send a significant message from us to the other person. Sartre believed that in literature, unlike painting and music, human deals with meanings. Meanings are not painted and cannot be observed in music. These arts do not imply anything other than themselves (Rawdrad, 2011: 71). Nowadays, non-verbal communication processes are one of the significant topics in understanding the different artistic and literary aspects of poetry. Non-verbal communication in poetry becomes a burden for body language in conveying concepts and is an alternate to the expression of personal thoughts, feelings and talents; Such emotions and behavioral actions interact voluntarily and involuntarily.
2-Research method
     In order to conduct this study, first different types of non-verbal communication processes were searched in Khaghani’s elegies. The statistical population of this study included the whole elegies of Khaghani (including 20 short and long odes, four compositions and 22 pieces); Then, the research data were re-evaluated in several ways, including the classification and statistics of non-verbal communication, as well as the classification and statistics of verbal and non-verbal communication. The results of this study were analyzed by presenting accurate tables and statistical charts. Eventually, the results of the study on the extent and effectiveness of these processes in making the various dimensions of Khaghani's elegies more emotional (language, tone, music and movement in poetry) were presented by descriptive method and argumentative and statistical analysis.
 
3- Discussion
-Body communication processes:
   Body language or speech movement refers to the study of the process of communication through the movement of body parts. Through the gesture we take, we can communicate how we walk and stand, how we change our facial expressions and eyes, and how we mix these variables to open or close channels. The knowledge of body language has been regarded in the recent studies 60 years ago, while body language has existed since the beginning of human. Psychologists and anthropologists have conducted extensive research on body language, which is part of a larger family called nonverbal behavior. Mastery of body language is not less significant than eloquence and rhetoric. Acquiring skills in using body language is one of the most efficient ways of improving human relationships (Dehghanpour Farashah, 2010: 42). Khaghani could penetrate the minds of his audience with a masterful combination of words and body language and could have an indescribable effect on his audience. The language of action in Khaghani's elegies is "motor behaviors and actions" which have been expressed in different ways, and Khaghani has paid special attention to this aspect of body language:
-Unconscious and involuntary body communication processes:
   Khaghani used unconscious bodily actions in order to visualize the burning and incurable human pain in a state of mourning for beauty and artistry; Such actions are often involuntary and originated from the sincerest human emotional feelings. The expression of these movements and spontaneous actions has filled the language with messages of sorrow and grief; The phrases such as: "tears" (Khaghani, 1995: 160), "fever and shivering" (ibid., 162 and 407), "putting hands on head and forehead" (ibid., 300), "biting the back of the hand" (ibid. , 541) and "ripping chest and garment" (ibid., 780 and 538) are bon-verbal and physical behaviors express human grief:
-Conscious and voluntary body processes:
  Sometimes, Khaghani used the explanation of conscious and voluntary body actions to express his distress and accompany the audience with his moods and feelings such as a bitter farewell kiss with his beloved son. This description of the poet is highly painful and shows the saddest moments for a father who witnesses the death of his son with despair but cannot do anything except kissing his son’s lifeless body and saying goodbye to his son before burying him.
-Body processes influenced by popular culture:
   Public culture has some traditions and customs for various situations of human individual and social life, some of which can be observed in the form of behavior and body movements. Different nations see certain general movements and behaviors in the rituals related to mourning, being considered as part of the cultural symbols belonging to that nation; In Khaghani's elegies, there are some allegorical and ironic references to such body movements and traditions of popular culture, being used for expressing the poet's sorrow and giving life to the emotional moments and themes of the poem:
-Body processes influenced by socio-cultural context:
   Some body movements are part of socio-cultural cues which have definitions of ideology and other coercive social manifestations in them; In these bodily movements and behaviors, patterns of culturally specific insights and thinking towards the world and human can be observed; Behaviors from human’s view of his own position in existence and his belief in the philosophy of material life or the afterlife and life after death. The continuation of such symbolic behaviors can be still observed in human civilization. Khaghani used such body actions, which have signs of monotheistic and dissident ideology, as well as ascetic origins in order to strengthen the lyrical themes in his elegies.
-Body processes influenced by literary traditions:
    In literary traditions, there are ironies, allusions, metaphors, and phrases based on body behaviors which are often assertive and exaggerated to illustrate different emotional states and situations, including mourning; Khaghani used such exaggerated acts frequently in his elegies:
-Communication processes of facial expressions:
Face is the first place to show the emotional state of individuals and plays a key role in interpersonal and social relationships. because you can see personal and social feedback on words and events around you in facial expressions. Appearance along with the expression of emotion which is the spontaneous expression of emotions (surprise, fear, anger, joy, etc.) which are inherent and universal and have special cultural rules in their expression, can be reflected in facial expressions. Indeed, face after speech is the most significant source of information for people. Generally, the human face indicates six different and basic emotions of clarity, including anger, fear, joy, sadness, surprise and hatred. Findings of psychologists indicate that the relationship between emotional experiences and facial expressions is a real and highly basic relationship (Franzoi, 2007: 83)
-Environmental communication processes:
Environment is one of the channels of human communication. The places where people gather around to interact with each other; House, room, workplace, park, as well as the physical arrangement, whether the environment is light or dark, have a great effect on the induction of the concept, and refers to the part of the environment elements which affect human feelings and actions. All social behaviors occur in the physical environment where individuals interact with each other in order to change the objects around them in accordance with a particular social event. Khaghani highlighted the tragedies by calling for changes in the environment, and conveys his inner non-verbal messages to the audience with these changes:
-Movement communication processes:
Khaghani's elegies are highly active, as we can find similar elegies in a few poems of Persian literature such as the lyric poems of Divan-i Shams; Such movement in Khaghani's elegies can be evaluated from different aspects; Movement is obvious both in the words and language of Khaghani's elegies. Undoubtedly, movement in Khaghani's elegies is one of the reasons for the stylistic identification of this type of Khaghani’s poetry and also the reason for its higher attraction and effect on the audience;
-The process of non-verbal musical communication in Khaghani’s elegies:
Poetry music can be regarded as one of the most effective types of non-verbal communication. The music chosen for a poem can overshadow all the elements of the poem and induce additional meanings to the poem.In Khaghani's poems, rhyme and melody are regarded as one of the most characteristic elements of poetry. Khaghani often selects lively rhymes for his elegies, which can create sad movement
4- Conclusion
      In this study, non-verbal communication processes in Khaghani's poetry were analyzed to discover the reasons of Khaghani's emotional effectiveness and the high volume of lyrical load in these poems, and the researcher achieved the following results:
-The five main types of non-verbal communication processes (in order of significance and frequency) including body, environmental, face, movement and music processes can be traced in Khaghani's poetry; These processes, both in relation to each other and in connection with the verbal processes, play a key role in making Khaghani's elegies emotional. Some of these processes are real and practical, some of them are pretentious and rhetorical (such as breaking the back, blackening the sky, crying blood).
-Some of these processes are voluntary and some of them are involuntary and result from natural physical and mental feedback with the event of grief and mourning including "blistering of the lips" or "bleeding of the veins in the eyes" or tears in the face and moaning. Khaghani used such processes as an alternate or complement to the explanation of sad feelings in the elegies. The frequency of voluntary processes is more than involuntary processes.
-Voluntary processes in all five types of findings (body, face, environment, movement, and music) are often affected by cultural/folk/ archetypal beliefs, as well as by literary traditions.
-Non-verbal communication processes by emphasis (50%), completion (30%) and substitution (20%) of meanings strengthened the tone, themes, images and lyrical language of Khaghani's elegies.  
-References

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non-verbal relationships
  • Khaghani
  • elegy
  • lyrical language
  • lyrical tone
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