بررسی ویژگی‌های غنایی در افسانۀ نیما یوشیج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری.گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی. دانشگاه قم. قم.ایران

2 استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

افسانۀ نیما یوشیج، با عنوان تغزّل نو و سرآغاز شعر غنائی مدرن شناخته می‌شود. شعر غنائی، ویژگی‌هایی دارد که از دل تعاریف آن به دست می‌آیند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر آن است که دریابیم کدام یک از این ویژگی‌ها در «افسانه» وجود دارند و نوآوری‌ها و هنجارشکنی‌های نیما، در کدام ویژگی‌ها صورت گرفته است؟ در این مطالعه با روش تحلیلی-توصیفی، با بررسی مؤلّفه‌های غنایی درمی‌یابیم که نوآوری اصلی نیما، در بیان عشق زمینی و توجه به معشوق واقعی و زوال‌پذیر است و از شعر سنّتی به دلیل فرورفتن در وادی عشق‌های انتزاعی و عرفانی انتقاد می‌کند و جانب انسان‌گرایی (اومانیسم) را می‌گیرد. بهره‌گیری از عشق تراژیک، قالب مکالمۀ آزاد و نمایشی، بیان مسائل اجتماعی به شکل گسترده، ساختار داستانی، راوی اول شخص، وزن بدیع و عامیانه، ایجاز روایی، روایت در زمان حال حاضر، توصیفات عینی و واقعی از اشیاء در کنار انطباق حالات درونی انسان و عوامل بیرونی طبیعت، صور خیال غنایی و تخیل نیرومند و برخورداری از عناصر روساخت و ژرف ساخت زیبایی‌شناسی، از مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های این منظومۀ است که آن را به سرچشمۀ شعر ناب غنایی وارد ساخته و با ایجاد تحوّل در همۀ ابعاد، راه را برای گسترش شعر غنایی معاصر هموار می نماید

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Lyrical Characteristics in the Legend of Nima Yoshij

نویسندگان [English]

  • soodeh abasi sardari 1
  • yahya kardgar 2
1 PhD Student of Persian Language and Literature Department, Qom University, Iran
2 professer of Persian language and literature Department, faculty member, University of Qom, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The legend of Nima Yoshij is known as the new lyric & the beginning of the modern lyrical poetry. The characteristics of lyrical poetry are derived from its definitions. The purpose of the present study was to find out which of the lyrical features are present in "The Legend of Nima"? And in what features, innovations and norms have been done? In this study, using the analytical-descriptive method, by examining the lyrical components, we found that Nima's main innovation is in expressing earthly love and paying attention to the real and perishable lover. Nima also criticizes traditional poetry for sinking into the valley of abstract love and takes the side of humanism. The most important lyrical features of this lyric poem that by creating changes in all dimensions and pave the way for the development of contemporary lyrical poetry are: Utilizing tragic love, free and dramatic conversation format, expressing social issues for the first time, narrative structure, first person narrator, original and slang weight, narrative brevity, present time, objective and internal descriptions, lyrical fantasies and aesthetic elements.      


Introduction

   Lyrical poetry is the poetry of expressing the poet's personal feelings and emotions, which revolve around her "I" center. The general definition of lyrical poetry by Iranian scholars is: "It is a poem with the music of the harp and the instrument playing, also has the most effective weights for expressing a romantic mood. Expressing subtle human emotions, along with the ability of social aspects, often along with description, having a worldview in the service of expressing emotions are among the characteristics of this type of poetry. Western lyrical critics define lyrical poetry as "poetry that has musical, theatrical, and artistic dimensions. A kind of social poetry, with aspects of individuality, and benefiting from emotions, which is its strongest aspect. The most obvious features of lyrical poetry can be summarized as: Expressing the poet's romantic feelings and emotions, a poem with a tragic feature, has a dramatic nature, has social aspects,   has a first person language, has a musical expression, shortness and shortness,  dependent on the present time, descriptive, - has a strong imagination, a poem with artistic features. The father of modern Persian poetry, Nima Yoshij (1897-1959), wrote a long poem entitled "Afsaneh" in 1922.
  This poem, which is a semi-modern poem, is considered to be the first modern Persian sonnet. This research seeks the most important lyrical features in Nima's legendary poetry.
 

Research Method

The research method in this study was library. After extracting resources from the library, it was organized analytically and descriptively.

Discussion   

Legendary lyrical features:                                                                                                                            
In the poem of Afsaneh, Nima Yoshij expresses various types of her feelings. But most of all, it speaks of romantic feelings. He prefers earthly and true love for the tangible and perishable lover to the mental and mystical loves that pervade all of Persian literature. Regarding earthly love, Nima believes that in any mutual love, there is definitely a personal benefit for both parties. He does not consider love eternal because she basically does not believe in eternal life for human beings. According to the poet, man is a small being who cannot fall in love with unseen loves.  He draws a line between mystical and mortal love, also between traditional and modern poetry, and defines the center of gravity of the new poetry as human-centered. In this poem, Nima talks about the many lovers who existed in her life and were often afflicted with despair and grief. Nima considers herself saddened by the embarrassment of these lovers. Therefore, the legend of Nima, which is full of pain and suffering, can be considered as a kind of tragic poem. In this poem, Nima has a two-way conversation with her true lover, "Afsaneh", and for the first time creates dramatic literature in the Persian poetry. Throughout the poem, the social issues of Nima's life are mentioned, and therefore the legend of Nima has a social and political approach. Poetry is told in the first person language. Although it is a long poem, it is considered a concise poem due to the expression of completely new topics in it. In this poem, an attempt has been made to bring the poem musically closer to the field of dramatic prose and the method of natural declamation. This Legend written in the present and is full of the feature of being alive. The elements and objects around them are accurately described by Nima in storytelling.
Of course, he is not unaware of the adaptation of human inner states to the elements in nature. Imagination in this poem is manifested in the form of the use of various imaginary forms such as similes, metaphors and ironies, which also benefit from the poet's lyrical feelings. The legend of Nima has a pure poetic essence due to the use of superstructure elements such as language, music and imagination and deep structural elements such as content, nature and theme and the emotional connection between its components. In general, the legend of Nima arises from the soul of the poet, which flows in his language completely unconsciously and is considered as a kind of artistic poetry.
 

Conclusion                                                                           

Nima Yoshij has used innovations in the mythical system known as the New Lyric, transforming the traditional features of lyrical poetry and opening a new path for poets after him. His most important innovation in this tragic poem is the expression of romantic feelings with an emphasis on humanism. The social and political issues of Nima's life are expressed alongside personal and romantic issues. In terms of the weight of the poem, it chooses a weight and brings the new lyric closer to the natural field of speech and discourse. In terms of description, Nima looks at the world around him from a different way. Most of Nima's imaginary paintings have a lyrical theme and originate from the poet's emotions and it irrigates this poem from the origin of pure artistic poetry.
 

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Psychotherapy . Saadi
  • Communication
  • Love
  • Yalom
  • Existential
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