نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران،ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی ،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات ،تهران،ایران.
3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی واحد علوم و تحقیقات،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تهران،ایران
روانشناسی مثبتگرا (Positive psychology) علمی است که با هدف بهبود زندگی، به توانمندیهای انسان توجه میکند. مارتین ای.پی. سلیگمن (Martin E.P Seligman, 1942) بنیانگذار روانشناسی مثبتگرا، هیجانات انسان را در سه مسیر «حال-گذشته-آینده» مورد مطالعه قرارمیدهد. از نظر او شادمانی از هیجانات مثبتِ مربوط به زمان حال است. او برای دستیابی به شادمانی علاوه بر تجربۀ هیجانات مثبت در زمان گذشته و آینده و حال به تقویت فضایل اخلاقی ششگانه از دستاوردهای خویشتنشناسی توصیه میکند. مولانا نیز از بُعد انسانشناسی، همگان را به شناخت خویشتن دعوت میکند. درکِ زمان حال نیز از دیدگاه او دارای اهمیت زیادی است. مولانا آینده را فقط با امید به خدا و گذشته را برای دستیابی به رضایت دارای اهمیت میداند. هدف از این پژوهش پاسخ به این سوال است که آیا شادمانی از دیدگاه مولانا دستیافتنی است؟ آیا مؤلفههای شادمانی و مثبتگرایی در مثنوی، با نظریۀ روانشناسی مثبتگرایِ سلیگمن قابل سنجش است؟ دستاوردهای پژوهش در رسیدن به شادمانی در مثنوی علاوه بر همپوشانی متغیرهای مثبتگرایی، به برتری وجه اندیشگانی و عرفانی مولانا میانجامد. این پژوهش با روش تحلیلی ـ توصیفی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانهای به بررسی و تطبیق متغیرهای شادمانی و مثبتگرایی در مثنوی و یافتن شباهتها و تفاوتها پرداختهاست.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Positivism and happiness From the point of view of Rumi and Seligman
- Fatemeh Asgharimehr 1
- Amir Ismail Azar 2
- Sareh Zirak 3
1 PhD. Student of Persian Language and Literature Department, science and research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran
2 Associate Professor of Persian language and literature Department, science and research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Persian language and literature Department, science and research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran
Positive psychology is a science that focuses on human abilities to improve life. Martin E. P. Seligman, the founder of positivist psychology, studies human emotions in three "present-past-future" directions. For him, happiness is one of the positive emotions of the present. In order to achieve happiness, in addition to experiencing positive emotions in the past and future, he recommends strengthening the six moral virtues of the achievements of self-knowledge. Rumi also invites everyone to know himself from the anthropological point of view. Understanding the "now" is also very important from his point of view. He considers the "future" only with hope in God and the "past" important for achieving satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether happiness is achievable from Rumi's point of view and the components of happiness and positivism in Masnavi can be measured by Seligman's theory of positivist psychology? Research achievements in achieving happiness in Masnavi, in addition to the overlap of positivism variables, lead to the superiority of Rumi's intellectual and mystical aspects. This research has studied and applied the variables of happiness and positivism in Masnavi with analytical-descriptive method and using library resources.
Positive Psychology is the study of humans' ability to improve their lives. Researchers in this field try to alleviate human suffering and improve lives by addressing the characteristics of hope (such as hope, satisfaction, friendliness, and meaning). Martin E.P. Seligman )1942), the founder of positivist psychology, studied human emotions in the three directions of the "present, past and future". For him, happiness is one of the positive emotions of the moment. In order to obtain happiness, in addition to experiencing positive emotions in the past, future and present, it also suggests six moral virtues to strengthen self-knowledge achievement. From an anthropological point of view, Rumi invites everyone to know themselves. From their perspective, understanding the current situation is also very important. He believes that the future is only important for God's hope, while the past is only important for satisfaction. The purpose of this research is to answer the question of whether happiness can be achieved from Rumi's point of view. Can Seligman's positivist psychology theory be used to measure Masnavi's happiness and positivism components? It is worth noting that in the process of research to obtain the best results, I communicated with Professor Seligman. When researching and applying it, it seems that in the current era, we can`t have a happy and balanced life with a consensus on mysticism. However, the research results led to Rumi's intellectual and mysterious advantages. Today's people will first eliminate the main barriers to communication with the world through idealism and self-knowledge. On the other hand, by using knowledge of technology and psychology and gaining virtues, you can achieve two powerful wings to achieve happiness. In this way, humans will overcome their fears and worries about the future by surrendering and learning from the past. Through this guide, you will realize the importance of the present and be able to create a balanced life, the consequence of which is to achieve happiness, satisfaction and peace.
In this study, through a descriptive method of analysis and the use of library resources, the variables of happiness and positivism were studied and applied to Masnavi, and similarities and differences were found. The first step of theoretical research is to collect common data from the Masnavi text based on Seligman's positivism theory. In the structural analysis stage, while inferring the content of the text, the commonalities and differences between the two ideas are also discussed. After identifying and testing the main source of the theory and its division as the main standard in Masnavi’s works, the researchers studied and collected it. The various parts of the analysis include examining variables and emotions in three ways: "past, present, and future" and identifying the six virtues. This series of achievements aims to realize the happiness and peace of mankind.
"Positive psychology focuses on success and contributes to happiness and satisfaction." Seligman pointed out that in addition to focusing on the psychological knowledge of patients and their negative emotions, he now also emphasizes science Work hard to educate people with normal and healthy behaviors." (Kar, 2011: 25)
"The Theory of Happiness" is similar to the concept of "Eudaimonia" put forward by Aristotle 2500 years ago. Aristotle believes that happiness is being good at doing things and living in the shadows. After this sentence, Seligman also expressed true happiness in the sense of achieving knowledge and skill development, love and acquisition meaning. (Seligman, 1396: 159) In his theory, Seligman distinguishes "immediate happiness" from "lasting happiness". He believes that by continuously using the six virtues and abilities, a good life can be achieved through satisfaction. (Ibid:24) He believes that a good life is something that transcends a pleasant life, and a meaningful life is something that transcends a good life. It comes from the connection with larger things, which is the essence that everyone obtains through connection. (Ibid: 159)
In literature, happiness has been institutionalized in human beings. To realize these happiness, it is necessary to establish a degree of beauty in the soul. In order to confirm this theme, Rumi focused on the love of God, thinking that happiness have been significantly hidden in the human body:
There is a hidden parrot inside you
You can see the reflection of that anywhere
Although, it takes happiness from you still you are pleased with it
you accept the oppression just as if is fair
"Analysis of Rumi’s thoughts in Masnavi also shows his profound understanding of psychology. Rumi subtly objectified the internal things and showed the behavior of the characters in the story, such as "psycho-drama." His thinking and therapy sometimes lead to cultural reconstruction, sometimes to the production of "insight" and The analysis of cognition will eventually change habits and behaviors and model them in a positive way. "(Arabian, 2014: 26) Rumi’s special attitude towards happiness shows his insight and positive recovery.
Rumi and Seligman view from a psychological, cognitive and positivistic perspective Humanity. When studying this theory, Rumi, in addition to achieving a common path, in some cases also provided other spiritual and cognitive paths to achieve happiness, which shows that his thoughts are compatible with psychological truths and become The achievement of a perfect man. Seligman believes that the past three times the future is very important, and he seeks satisfaction and realization of meaning by focusing on moral virtues and abilities. Emphasize the present, especially hope for the "future" and satisfaction with the "past" in order to achieve lasting happiness. Rumi also invites people to discover themselves and to obtain happiness based on knowledge and virtue. Based on the "spirituality" based on "I", he believes that people with inner revelation can achieve truth and lasting satisfaction by removing rust.Considering that both characters use the religious to express their thoughts, and all the achievements of this path are the result of a deep connection with "faith". This achievement is what Seligman calls a strong belief. He believes that life makes sense only by being connected to bigger things, and the result is the same peace that brings lasting happiness. However, Rumi's vision is based on variables such as thought, spirituality, faith, satisfaction, obedience, gratitude, and love, and is a guide to truth and eternal happiness, enriching his religious ideas. and mysterious in this comparison. In his opinion, the fact that people love God and obey God's will with complete satisfaction and happiness is realization of the truth. Rumi is different from Seligman, he does not like sensory elements, especially sadness, he thinks that they are just a means of contemplation, and certainty, so he pays more attention to the present. Therefore, by enhancing spirituality and acquiring capacity and adapting it to positivistic psychology, we can change human behavior and improve human happiness and well-being.
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- Martin Seligman