نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران
شکستن سنتها یکی از ویژگیهای بارز ادبیات معاصر است که هر کدام از شاعران و نویسندگان به نحوی تلاش کردهاند با شکستن سنتها دست به تجدد و نوآوری بزنند. در دوره معاصر فروغ فرخزاد و سیمین بهبهانی از مشهورترین شاعران زن در این حیطه میباشند. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی و تحلیل سنتشکنیهای این دو شاعر، در پی پاسخ به این سوال اصلی است: سنتشکنی در شعر فروغ و سیمین در چه حوزههایی از روساخت و زیرساخت اشعار آنها نمود یافته است؟ با روش تحقیق تحلیلی – مقایسهای مجموعه اشعار فروغ و سیمین از منظر گریز از سنتهای رایج زمان خود، مورد مطالعه و بررسی قرار گرفته است که این امر در سه محور اصلی زن، عشق و زبان تحلیل و بررسی و مقایسه شده است. زن مهمترین مسأله در شعر این دو شاعر است و آنها تلاش کردهاند که دین خود را به همنوعان خود ادا کنند و در این راستا زن بودن را در اشعارشان به نمایش گذاشتهاند هم از طریق زبان زنانه و هم عشقورزیهای زنانه. عشق در شعر سیمین و فروغ همراه با عواطف و احساسات خالصانه زنانه بیان شده است و از آن توصیفات کلاسیک و اسطورهای فاصله گرفته است. استفاده از واژهها و اصطلاحات مورد استفاده زنان و توصیف اعضای بدن و لوازم آرایش و ذکر مسائل اروتیک از اصلیترین جنبههای زبان زنانه در شعر فروغ و سیمین است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Forough and Simin willed to breaking tradition
- Hojatollah Omidali
Assistant Professor of Persian language and literature Department, University of Arak, Arak,Iran.
Breaking Traditions One of the prominent features of contemporary literature is that each of the literary writers has somehow tried to modernize and break the traditions. In the contemporary period, Forough Farrokhzad and Simin Behbahani are the most famous female poets in this field. The purpose of this study is to analyze and analyze the traditions of these two poets, focusing on their feminine traditions in their poetry. An analytical research method - comparative study of Forough and Simin's poems from the perspective of feminine traditions has been studied. The high frequency of feminine traditions in the poetry of these two poets was analyzed and compared in three main areas: the problem of woman, the problem of love and the problem of language. Women are the most important issue in the poetry of these two poets, and they have tried to convey their religion to their fellow men, and in this respect they have shown womanhood in their poems, both through feminine language and love. Women's sportswear.
Contemporary Iranian poetry is the result of tradition, modernism and metamorphosis, the source of which must be sought after the Constitutional Revolution. Breaking the tradition is one of the main features of contemporary culture. "Manifestations of this feature manifest themselves at all levels and layers of society and culture." (Zarghani, 1387: 39)The tradition of classical poetry was broken in the contemporary period, both in terms of content and form. Nima Yoshij is one of the complete manifestations of tradition-breaking in contemporary poetry. He changed not only the external and external form of the poem but also the internal form, the quality of the illustration, the thematic techniques, and how the language was used. Forough Farrokhzad is another manifestation of the breaking of tradition in contemporary poetry. She is a pioneer in the field in which contemporary female poets have painted their dream utopia. Simin Behbahani, along with Forough Farrokhzad, is one of the most famous contemporary poets who has a special style and look with a special attitude in composing poetry, which contains breaking tradition and innovation.
The research method is analytical-comparative that by examining the poetry of Forough Farrokhzad and Simin Behbahani, the break-up approaches in their poetry are described and analyzed.
The effects of Forough and Simin's traditions in contemporary poetry can be examined in three main areas: 1- The issue of women 2- The issue of love 3- The issue of language
1- The issue of women is the most central content in the poems of Forough and Simin, and this breaking of their tradition is unique and frequent among contemporary poets of its kind. In her opinion, the woman has not been seen as she should be and she does her best to show the different aspects of women's lives and pains. In defense of women's rights, she strongly opposes inequalities, saying that a woman has the right to be a woman in her poetry. ... Why does a man have the right to shout but not a woman ?! Why can a man tell the secret of his heart but it is a disgrace for a woman ?! Why should a woman be silent ?! Because of the problems that exist for women, she sees everything through the eyes of men and therefore has a negative view of men. The main focus of Forough's thoughts and poems is the struggle against the patriarchal tradition that controls all the layers and components of his poetry. Simin Behbahani takes a more moderate approach than Forough, and because of her social literacy and experience, she puts aside haste. Referring to the unfavorable cultural and social situation of women, she states that the root of all these anomalies is in the traditions, the way people are educated and the existing laws, and therefore she uses her efforts to make this tradition possible. Eliminate cumbersome items.
2- The issue of love is another tradition of Forough and Simin in contemporary poetry. Love in Simin and Forough's poems is in conflict with that bloodthirsty lover and his neck and is distancing himself. Each of them denounces the wicked lover and describes it in accordance with their feminine beliefs and feelings, without trying to make him look mythical and unattainable. Forough's recklessness in composing sharp and candid poems drew a lot of criticism from him. Woman and feminine love in Forough's early collections is the physical embodiment of pleasure. In Simin's poetry, the beloved came out of the mythical and imaginary state and the relationship between the lover and the beloved became tangible and achievable. Truthfulness is evident in his poetry, and for this reason he sometimes has descriptions of these relations, all of which are beyond the norm of academic and research texts. Forough and Simin have played a major role and influence in clarifying the face of the beloved in the poetry of female poets. They have transformed the unattainable and mysterious lover of classical poetry into a physical, attainable and transparent lover.
3- The issue of language: The poetic language of Forough and Simin each have their own traditions and have brought the language of poetry closer to everyday and feminine language. In "Another Birth", Forough laid the final foundation stone for the democratization of language, after which the language of poetry breathes in a completely free air. The distinctive feature of Forough and Simin's poetic language is its feminine tone, which is obtained by contemplating the chain of words and the syntax of sentences, and the atmosphere and space of words. Forough's recklessness and frankness in describing sexual desires is a prominent feature of the feminine tradition in her poems, which has given her a poetic tone. Erotic issues also have a special effect in Simin's poetry, and for this reason, he has given his poetry a feminine language and personality.
The dominant aspect in the poems of Forough Farrokhzad and Simin Behbahani is a tradition-breaker that can be studied and analyzed in three main approaches: woman, love and language. Simin Behbahani and Forough Farrokhzad look at and describe the world from their femininity perspective, express their desires and aspirations, defend their homosexuals, and sometimes take an aggressive stance against men.The issue of women in the poems of these two poets is the focal point around which everything revolves and with their own view they have a tradition in this field. Forough cries out the pain and oppression of women in her poems and tries to be their voice, so she expresses in her poetry with unprecedented clarity that sometimes extremism and Exaggeration is also seen in it. Simin also considers the issue of women and considers herself obliged to defend women and express her teachings in this regard. In her poems, she speaks of the frustration of women and the abuse of their rights in society, in the form of prostitution, poverty, prostitution, and forced marriages, which are examples of the main components of feminism. She demands equality between men and women, minimum rights for women and citizenship.The view of love also changed in the poetry of Forough and Simin, and with the evolution of this view, the description of the beloved and the position of the beloved also took on a different face in contemporary poetry. Love was described in the relationship between a man and a woman, the origin of which was considered to be the sexual orientation of man (man and woman). The lover changed from his typical, structural and archetypal position to a human and human position that has lips, back, hands, teeth, lust, desire, desire and so on. Forough and Simin were very effective in grounding love and grounding the position of the beloved. In the poetry of those two lovers, it is part of the poet ج ۀ romantic experience.. In their poetry, a woman falls in love from her feminine point of view and describes her lover and talks about her bodily desires. Linguistic behavior is one of the aspects of human social behavior that this issue has a special femininity and prominence in Forough and Simin's poetry. Many of the compositions, expressions and words that these two poets have brought in their poems are appropriate to their gender and this has given a feminine tone to their poetry. Using everyday language and slang terms, referring to erotic issues and describing body parts, naming all kinds of feminine cosmetics, relying on feminine words, etc., all in creating a feminine tone and language in Forough and Simin's poetry. It has been effective and for this reason, their breaking with tradition and innovation is unique and worthy of special attention among contemporary female poets.
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- Contemporary Poetry
- Female Tradition
- Forough Farrokhzad and Simin Behbahani