نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس. بوشهر. ایران
2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس. بوشهر. ایران
تقابل دوگانه هر چند مصادیقی به درازای دیرندة تاریخ دارد، اما نخستین بار این اصطلاح را زبانشناسان ساختارگرا که در پی روشی منسجم و علمی جهت دستیابی به رابطة معنایی میان دو مفهوم متضاد و متنافی بودند، مطرح ساختند. باری، یکی از این دوگانهها، خوشبینی و بدبینی است که میان آن دو رابطهای متقابل برخاسته از قرینگی و تعامل با یکدیگر، برقرار است. این تقابل که نقش بارزی در زیبایی و انسجام ساختاری متون ادبی دارد، به گونهای بارز در شعر عبدالوهاب البیاتی (1926- 1999م) و محمدرضا شفیعیکدکنی (1318ش) آشکار است. این پژوهش با طرح این پرسش که هر دو شاعر برای بیان خوشبینی و بدبینی از چه تقابلهای دوگانهای بهره بردهاند و چه شباهتها و تفاوتهایی میان آنهاست، بر اساس روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، مصادیق مشابه و برجستة تقابل دوگانة خوشبینی و بدبینی و دلالتهای آنها را در اشعار این دو شاعر تحلیل و بررسی میکند. این هنرْسازه در قالب کلماتی با بارِ مثبت و منفی چون جفتواژگان نور و تاریکی، آزادی و اسارت، بهار و زمستان و زایش و مرگ در شعر دو شاعر جلوه مییابد. زیربنای اصلی همة این جفتواژگان، دغدغههای اجتماعی و سیاسیای است که موجب شده این دو شاعر در کنار واژگان و تعبیراتی که دلالت بر یأس و اندوه دارند، از واژگان و تعبیراتی استفاده کنند که دلالت بر امید و شادی دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
An Analysis of Binary Oppositions of Optimism and Pessimism in ‛Abd al-wahhāb al- Bayātī and Mohammad Reza Shafi’i Kadkani's poems
- Hediyeh Ghasemifard 1
- naser zare 2
1 PhD student of Arabic Language and Literature Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literature Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran
Binary oppositions are concepts that, although they have a long history, were first coined by structuralist linguists who sought a coherent and practical way to achieve a semantic relationship between two opposing concepts. One of these Binary oppositions is the optimism and pessimism. There is an opposing relation between these tow concepts which springs from their symmetry and their interaction. This contrast, which plays a significant role in the beauty and structural coherence of literary texts, is particularly evident in the poems of ‛Abd al-Wahhāb al-Bayātī (1999- 1926) and Mohammad Reza shafi’i Kadkani (1939). This study, raising the question of what binary oppositions both poets have used to express optimism and pessimism and what are the similarities and differences between them, analyzes similar and prominent examples and highlights the binary opppositions of optimism and pessimism and their connotations in the poems of the two poets, based on descriptive-analytical method. This artistic device is manifested in the form of words with positive and negative connotations such as a pair of words of light and darkness, freedom and captivty, spring and winter, birth and death in the poems of two poets. The main underpinnings of all these pairs of words are social and political concerns that have deeply intertwined with the poems of two poets. These concerns have led these two poets use words and phrase that imply disappointment and sadness in addition to use use words and phrase that imply hope and happiness.
As one of the basic concepts of human life, Binary opposition has been manifested in human life since the beginning of creation because "one of the fundamental functions of the human mind is the creation of binary oppositions” (Bertens, 2018: 77). These binary oppositions, basically philosophical phenomena, are defined under the structuralism. Optimism and pessimism are reciprocal concepts that are intertwined with human emotions and have one of the most important axes of signification in literary works. One of the manifestations of this literary trick is the poems of ‛Abd al-wahhāb al-Bayātī and Mohammad Reza Shafi’i Kadkanī. Drawing why and how to show optimism and pessimism together in the poetry of two poets through tangible and objective symbols and how these two poets view these symbols and their semantic study are the main research objectives. Using binary words with optimistic and pessimistic connotations, these two poets maintain their dynamic and firm connection with the social realities of their time, and in the struggle and tension between optimism and pessimism, they often hold the side of the forces of hope. In this research, the following questions have been answered: What Binary Oppositions have the two poets used to express optimism and pessimism?
In the poems of these two poets, what are the similarities and differences between the Binary Oppositions that are focused on optimism and pessimism?
The study employed a descriptive-analytical research method and the American school of comparative literature approach whose foundations are on similarities. It selects the most important binary oppositions of common optimism and pessimism in the poetry of two poets that have social and political aspects. It then compares, analyzes, and examines the meaning and function of the selected poetic evidence of the two poets until their similarities and differences are revealed. As mentioned, evidence is examined that reflects the social concerns of two poets in different periods of poetry. Therefore, dealing with the poems of the romantic period of the two poets is beyond the scope of this paper, requiring another opportunity.
The binary opposition of optimism and pessimism is one of the literary techniques in Al-Bayātī’s and Shafi’i Kadkani's poetry, bringing the reader to a new atmosphere of emotional fluctuations in their poetry. One of these concepts is freedom. For example, Al-Bayātī composes: “They cut off my physical body/ burned it / this is me, with no old cloths / I am free as this fire and wind, I am free for eternity (Al -Bayātī, 2008: 19/2). The pessimistic image of captivity in this verse is formed by disturbing acts such as amputation and burning, and the optimistic image of freedom with an emphasis on the poet's freedom. Shafi’i Kadkanī composes: “The world is in beautiful for a moment/ If this darkness and rust / which closes the way to visit, /let it/The expanse of the world is full of freedom and joy / If this demon and this wall / let it” (Shafi’i Kadkanī, 1999: 246-247). Optimism is depicted in this verse in the pleasing image of freedom and happiness in the world and the image of pessimism in the darkness and rust of demons and walls. The image of freedom and the obstacles in the way of those two optimistic and pessimistic dimensions are common to the poetry of the two poets. With the difference that Al-Bayātī has turned his poem into two separate parts: the first part is sad images and the second part is a clear image of hope for freedom. However, Shafi’i Kadkani's poetry is circular; that is, it is moving from optimism to pessimism and vice versa.
Light and darkness are other reciprocal concepts of the poems of the two poets. The thought of the homeland and its unfulfilled aspirations have always been associated with stagnation, and he addresses this by addressing the light of freedom and hope: “Oh! Cries of light/here, I am beseeched, departed/this is me who is going to die/ in the darkness of the coffin” (al-Bayātī, 2008: 2 / 145-146). Calling light for help is a sign of optimism and the death and darkness of the coffin is a sign of the influence of the pessimistic spirit in this poem. Shafi’i Kadkanī also sings like this: I know that there is a light / in the absence of lights, / I look / like a bit of tar / it drips / (Shafi’i Kadkanī, 1998: 207-208). The binary opposition of optimism and pessimism in this paragraph is manifested in the form of the light of a lamp against the darkness of bitumen. Both poets, although they believe in the power of the light of freedom and hope, express their inner sorrow over the problems of society with sad words. Inspired by the spring and winter seasons, the two poets have given life to their political and social themes. Al-Bayātī composes: “She, swallow, and spring will return tomorrow / And I removed the ice from my eyes, and again / Above the slaughterhouses, the moonlight shone brightly” (Al-Bayātī, 2008: 1/178). The image of removing frost and the return of the swallow and the spring and the stressed moon are signs of optimism and frost indicate the pessimistic dimension of this paragraph. Unlike the statement that Al-Bayātī wishes to bring spring to his homeland, Shafi’i Kadkanī warns spring not to reach his homeland: “Come back, spring! Which in the gardens of the city / is not the place of the song of joy and the cry of song / except for the closed knots of a long suffering / on the dry branches of the bud trees” (Shafi’i Kadkanī, 1998: 93-94) Spring is a symbol of optimism and dry branches and suffering are the pessimistic meanings of this poem. Warning spring as a symbol of optimism, the poet dissuades him from entering the gardens of the homeland. These two clauses are similar in the binary opposition of the optimistic symbols of spring and the pessimistic symbols of winter. But the predominant aspect of al-Bayātī's poetry is the hope of spring and optimism, while Shafi’i Kadkanī, acknowledging the necessary effects of spring on other societies, calls for spring not to reach his homeland. The binary opposition of life and death is another reciprocal concept of al-Bayātī’s and Shafi’i Kadkani’s poetry: “We die in exile, but we will be born again” (al-Bayātī, 2008: 2/251).
The optimistic image of life is reflected in rebirth and the pessimistic image of death is manifested in death. In the stagnant worldview, the death of every born fighter is reborn in the world of life. Referring to the concept phoenix, Shafi’i Kadkanī composes: “Where does the phoenix raise his wings / In another fire? /blessed is another death, wishing for another birth” (Shafi’i Kadkanī, 1998: 246). This image is also the binary opposition of optimistic life and the pessimistic death. Due to its mythical and mystical nature, this poem has the possibility of various interpretations in comparison with al-Bayāti's poem, which has a clear socio-political theme.
Al-Bayātī and Shafi’i Kadkanī employed the binary opposition technique to draw their own aspirations and thoughts. These two poets selects concepts such as freedom and captivity, spring and winter, birth and death, light and darkness for this purpose. This technique is appropriate to the conditions of the societies where the two poets lives for purposes such as: drawing the atmosphere of oppression in society and suppressing freedom, instilling hope in society and trying to awaken the people and confront the tyranny of tyrants. Due to its fusion with nature, Shafi’i Kadkani's poetry is symbolic, allowing for different interpretations. However, in al-Bayātī’s poetry, the dimension of nature is less colorful and sometimes due to the explicitness, the way is closed to different interpretations. The two poets look at the realities of society with an optimistic view and decide to take the side of optimism in the struggle between optimism and pessimism. The frequency of these selected binary oppositions in al-Bayātī's poem is more than Shafi’i Kadkani's. It seems that the realism of the language of Al-Bayātī's poems is effective in this regard versus the imaginary and symbolic language of Shafi’i Kadkani's poems.
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- Binary opppositions
- ‛Abd al-wahhāb al-Bayātī
- Mohammad Reza Shafi’i Kadkani